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Global Land Cover Characterization

South America Land Cover Characteristics Data Base Version 2.0


PLEASE NOTE: This is the Version 2.0 release of the South America land cover characteristics data base. The land cover information has been updated from Version 1.2.  Please read section 5.0 for information about the revision process and what changes have been made to the data. 


Table of Contents

1.0 Data Description

The South America land cover data base is one portion of a global land cover characteristics data base that was developed on a continent-by-continent basis. All continents in the global data base share the same map projections (Interrupted Goode Homolosine and Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area), have 1-km nominal spatial resolution, and are based on 1-km AVHRR data spanning April 1992 through March 1993 (Loveland and others, 1999). Each continental data base has unique elements that are based on the salient geographic aspects of the specific continent. In addition, a core set of derived thematic maps produced through the aggregation of seasonal land cover regions are included in each continental data base. These are:

The legends for each of these derived data sets can be found in Section 4.2 - 4.8.

For a description of the methodology for the global data base, see the global readme file found under the LP DAAC home page (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/glcc.php).

The South America land cover characteristics data are in a flat, headerless raster format. The pixel values correspond to class numbers defined in the appropriate land cover classification scheme legend. Data are distributed as compressed and uncompressed single-band images. The files can be obtained either by anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp) or downloaded from the LP Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) World Wide Web site: (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/sa_int.php). The instructions for accessing these files are contained in the following two sections.

1.1 Anonymous FTP for PC or UNIX Users

  1. Contact the FTP server. At your command prompt, use the command: ftp edcftp.cr.usgs.gov
  2. Login as an anonymous user and use your email address as the password.
  3. Change to the directory pub/data/glcc
  4. Change to the South America subdirectory, sa
  5. Change to the directory for the projection of interest (i.e., goode for Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or lambert for Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection).
  6. Locate the file of interest (a complete file listing is located in section 3.0 of this readme). The image files were compressed using the GNU 'gzip' software and can be identified by the ".gz" file extension. These files must be uncompressed before use with the 'gunzip' utility, a part of the 'gzip' software. Directions for acquiring the gzip software from GNU can be found on the WWW on the GNU home page (http://www.gnu.org/). If you do not have access to gzip, the ftp server can uncompress the files as they are retrieved.
  7. To FTP compressed files:
  8. To FTP uncompressed files:
1.2 Downloading from the World Wide Web Site

From the South America Land Cover page, select either data in Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or data in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection. The selection will link to a page that contains links to all documentation files and the image files (both compressed and uncompressed). NOTE: World Wide Web browsers can vary in how the files will be downloaded. On PCs, some browsers will allow a user to interactively select the location where the file will be saved and to edit the file name. However, on certain browsers files may be automatically downloaded to a default storage location on the local system.

  1. Select either button, compressed or uncompressed, for the file of interest.
  2. A pop-up screen may appear, showing information on the download procedure. At this point, choose the directory in which to save the file.
  3. For compressed files, the .gz extension must be added to the filename before downloading. However, if the browser will not accept adding an extension, continue with the download, and then rename the file with the .gz extension when the download is complete.
  4. For uncompressed files, leave the .gz extension off. If a pop-up screen shows the filename with a .gz extension either edit the filename, or proceed with the download and rename the file without the extension after the procedure is complete.
2.0 Geometric Characteristics

The South America data base is available in two different map projections: the Interrupted Goode Homolosine and the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (see Steinwand, 1994 , and Steinwand and others, 1995, for a complete description of these projections).

2.1 Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection for the South America land cover characteristics data set are 8,016 lines (rows) and 5,632 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 45 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Interrupted Goode Homolosine

2.2 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection for the South America land cover characteristics data set are 8,000 lines (rows) and 6,000 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 48 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

3.0 File Listing
File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/sa   South America
/pub/data/glcc/sa/goode   Goodes Interupted Homolosine Projection
sadoc2_0.txt ascii South America readme text
saslcr2_0.leg ascii South America seasonal land cover regions legend
salcdbtab2_0.txt ascii South America land cover database table (tab delimited text)
bats2_0.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp2_0.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge2_0.leg ascii Olson Global Ecosystems legend
run2_0.leg ascii Running Vegetation Lifeforms legend
sib2_0.leg ascii SiB legend
sib22_0.leg ascii SiB2 legend
usgs2_0.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
sabats2_0g.img.gz byte South America BATS image
sademg.img.gz 16bit South America DEM image
saigbp2_0g.img.gz byte South America IGBP image
saoge2_0g.img.gz byte South America Olson Global Ecosystems image
sarun2_0g.img.gz byte South America Running Vegetation Lifeforms image
sasib2_0g.img.gz byte South America SiB image
sasib22_0g.img.gz byte South America SiB2 image
saslcr2_0g.img.gz byte South America Seasonal Land Cover Regions image
saurbang.img.gz byte South America Digital Chart of the World urban image
sausgs2_0g.img.gz byte South America USGS land use/land cover image

/pub/data/glcc/sa   South America
/pub/data/glcc/sa/goode   Goodes Interupted Homolosine Projection
/pub/data/glcc/sa/goode/ndvimon Monthly NDVI Composites
saaprndg.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
samayndg.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
sajunndg.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
sajulndg.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
saaugndg.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
sasepndg.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
saoctndg.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
sanovndg.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
sadecndg.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
sajanndg.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
safebndg.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
samarndg.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

/pub/data/glcc/sa   South America
/pub/data/glcc/sa/lambert   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection
sadoc2_0.txt ascii South America readme text
saslcr2_0.leg ascii South America seasonal land cover regions legend
salcdbtab2_0.txt ascii South America land cover database table (tab delimited text)
bats2_0.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp2_0.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge2_0.leg ascii Olson Global Ecosystems legend
sib2_0.leg ascii SiB legend
sib22_0.leg ascii SiB2 legend
usgs2_0.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
sabats2_0l.img.gz byte South America BATS image
sademg.img.gz 16bit South America DEM image
saigbp2_0l.img.gz byte South America IGBP image
saoge2_0l.img.gz byte South America Olson Global Ecosystems image
sarun2_0l.img.gz byte South America Running Vegetation Lifeforms image
sasib2_0l.img.gz byte South America SiB image
sasib22_0l.img.gz byte South America SiB2 image
saslcr2_0l.img.gz byte South America Seasonal Land Cover Regions image
saurbang.img.gz byte South America Digital Chart of the World urban image
sausgs2_0l.img.gz byte South America USGS land use/land cover image

/pub/data/glcc/sa   South America
/pub/data/glcc/sa/lambert Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection
/pub/data/glcc/sa/lambert/ndvimon Monthly NDVI Composites
saaprndl.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
samayndl.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
sajunndl.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
sajulndl.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
saaugndl.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
sasepndl.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
saoctndl.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
sanovndl.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
sadecndl.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
sajanndl.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
safebndl.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
samarndl.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

4.0 Derived Data Sets

4.1 South America Seasonal Land Cover Regions Legend

South America, v. 2.0

Value Description
1 Caribbean Pine Plantation
2 Montane Evergreen Rainforest (Cloud Forest)
3 Fragmented Forest/Tropical Grassland Mosaic
4 Fragmented Forest/Tropical Grassland Mosaic
5 Montane Tropical Evergreen Forest
6 Humid Lowland Tropical Rainforest
7 Submontane Moist Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
8 Montane Evergreen Broadleaf Rainforest with Epiphytes
9 Tropical Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
10 Fragmented Tropical Lowland Forest with Cropland (Sugar Cane, Fruit)
11 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
12 Tropical Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
13 Tropical Moist Forest
14 Open Tropical Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
15 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
16 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
17 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
18 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
19 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
20 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
21 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
22 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
23 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
24 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
25 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
26 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest/Flooded Tropical Evergreen Rainforest (Mangroves Along Coast)
27 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
28 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
29 Upland Subtropical Evergreen Forest (Atlantic Forest)
30 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
31 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
32 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
33 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
34 Tropical/Subtropical Moist Evergreen Forest with Cropland
35 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
36 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
37 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
38 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
39 Tropical/Subtropical Moist Evergreen Forest
40 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
41 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
42 Moist Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
43 Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forest
44 Temperate Rainforest (Mixed-Leaf)
45 Temperate Moist Evergreen Needleleaf and Broadleaf Forest
46 Temperate Evergreen Needleleaf and Broadleaf Forest
47 Temperate Evergreen Broadleaf and Needleleaf Forest
48 Temperate Mixed-Leaf Forest with Pine Plantations
49 Temperate Mixed-Leaf Forest with Pine Plantations and Cropland (Vineyards, Wheat, Corn)
50 Semiarid Evergreen Shrubland
51 Tropical Xerophytic Shrubs and Cacti (Caatinga)
52 Tropical Xerophytic Shrubs and Cacti (Caatinga) with Cropland
53 Tropical Semiarid Thorn Shrubland/Grassland (Caatinga) with Cropland (Cereals, Cotton)
54 Andean Tundra (Puna), Southern Andean Bunch Grass
55 Open Deciduous Shrubland (Sclerophyllous)
56 Andean Tundra (Puna)
57 Semiarid Shrubland Steppe
58 Arid Temperate/andine Shrubland with Grassland
59 Andean Shrubland (Paramo)
60 Andean Shrub Tundra (Puna)
61 Xerophytic Shrubland (Altiplano) (Fragmented Grassland, Fragmented Shrubland)
62 Andean Shrubland (Puna)
63 Xerophytic Shrubland (Altiplano) (Fragmented Grassland, Fragmented Shrubland)
64 Semiarid Shrubland Steppe
65 Semiarid Shrubland Steppe
66 Open Deciduous Woodland/Shrubland
67 Degraded Montane Low Deciduous Forest with Deciduous Shrubland/Cropland (Grains, Potatoes, Vegetables)
68 Open Dry Tropical Woodland
69 Semiarid Shrubland/Woodland
70 Dry Deciduous Woodland (Chaco)
71 Woodland Savanna with Cropland (Cerradao) (Cotton, Sugar Cane, Fruit, Rice)
72 Deciduous Woodland
73 Flooded Grassland/Fragmented Forest, Mangroves
74 Open Deciduous Woodland
75 Drought Deciduous Thorn Woodland with Cropland
76 Woody Savanna (Cerradao) with Crops (Corn, Coffee, Sugar Cane)
77 Dry Deciduous Woodland (Chaco)
78 Dry Deciduous Woodland (Chaco)
79 Fragmented Tropical Evergreen Forest/Shrub Savanna
80 Deciduous Woodland
81 Deciduous Woodland, Woodland/Grassland Mosaic
82 Deciduous Woodland, Woodland/Grassland Mosaic
83 Savanna (Llano) with Cropland (Corn, Soybeans)
84 Savanna (Cerradao)
85 Savanna (Tall Grass with Woody Broadleaf)
86 Savanna (Llano)
87 Savanna (Cerrados) with Cropland (Cotton, Corn, Rice, Fruit)
88 Savanna (Llano)
89 Savanna (Cerradao)
90 Savanna with Cropland (Cerradao) (Coffee, Fruit, Sugar Cane, Corn, Cotton)
91 Seasonally Flooded Savanna with Palms
92 Savanna with Palms
93 Savanna with Palms
94 Patagonian Steppe
95 Shrub Steppe (Patagonian)
96 Andean Grassland (Puna, Humid Paramo)
97 Tussock Grassland
98 Andean Grassland with Montane Evergreen Forest
99 Grassland with Montane Evergreen Forest
100 Tussock Grassland
101 Subpolar Herbaceous Tundra
102 Grassland with Woodland
103 Grassland
104 Grassland with Cropland (Corn, Soybeans, Wheat, Row Crops)
105 Wooded Wetlands
106 Flooded Evergreen Broadleaf Rainforest (Varzea)
107 Cropland (Coffee, Fruit, Vegetables) with Fragmented Forest
108 Cropland (Rice, Cassava, Corn, Beans)
109 Cropland with Woodland (Coffee, Wheat, Corn, Cassava, Rice, Soybeans)
110 Cropland (Sugar Cane, Fruit, Corn)
111 Cropland (Rice, Sugar Cane)
112 Cropland (Winter Wheat) with Grassland
113 Cropland (Wheat, Corn, Cotton, Fruit)
114 Cropland (Rice)
115 Cropland (Sugar Cane, Fruit, Corn)
116 Cropland with Grassland (Barley, Small Grains, Wheat, Corn)
117 Cropland (Wheat, Corn, Grapes, Beans, Potato, Sugar Beets, Fruit)
118 Cropland with Savanna (Cerradao) (Soybeans, Corn)
119 Cropland (Corn, Sugar Cane, Tobacco, Barley)
120 Cropland with Woodland (Subsistence Farming)
121 Cropland with Pasture (Wheat, Corn, Sunflowers)
122 Cropland with Woodland (Coffee, Corn, Cassava, Rice, Sugarcane)
123 Cropland with Grassland (Wheat, Corn, Sunflowers)
124 Cropland with Grassland (Corn, Rice, Fruit, Tea)
125 Tropical Seasonal Dry Deciduous Forest/Cropland (Fruit, Coffee, Grapes, Sugar Cane)
126 Savanna/Cropland
127 Grassland/Pasture/Cropland (Coffee, Fruit, Sugar Cane)
128 Tropical Xerophytic Shrubs and Cacti (Caatinga)/Irrigated Crops
129 Grassland/Cropland (Small Grains, Fruit)
130 Cropland (Sugarcane)/Savanna
131 Cropland (Cotton)/Savanna
132 Cropland/Fragmented Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
133 Fragmented Forest/Cropland (Coffee, Sugar Cane)
134 Open Woodland (Cerrados)/Cropland (Corn, Rice, Cotton, Fruit, Soybeans) Mosaic
135 Fragmented Forest/Cropland (Corn, Rice, Sugar Cane, Fruit)
136 Cropland/Shrubland (Wheat, Fruit, Corn, Fruit
137 Cropland/Woodland (Corn, Rice, Sugar Cane)
138 Shrub Savanna/Cropland (Atlantic Forest)
139 Tropical Evergreen Forest Transition/Cropland (Fruit, Rice, Coffee, Sugarcane)
140 Woodland (Drought Deciduous)/Cropland (Wheat, Row Crops, Sunflowers, Fruit)
141 Cropland/Pasture (Coffee, Sugar Cane)
142 Shrubland/Thorn Woodland/Cropland Mosaic (Rice, Beans, Cotton, Sugar Cane)
143 Cropland/Woodland (Coffee, Sugar Cane, Rice, Corn, Fruit)
144 Fragmented Forest/Cropland Mosaic (Corn, Rice, Sugar Cane, Fruit)
145 Wet Savanna/Cropland (Corn, Soybeans, Coffee)
146 Cropland/Fragmented Forest Mosaic (Coffee, Sugar Cane)
147 Cropland (Rice, Sugar Cane, Fruit, Corn, Subsistence Farming)/Fragmented Evergreen Forest
148 Cropland/Woodland (Wheat Corn, Eucalyptus Plantations, Vineyards)
149 Cropland/Deciduous Woodland (Wheat, Small Grains, Vegetables)
150 Cropland/Woodland (Coffee, Fruit)
151 Cropland/Grassland (Wheat, Sunflower, Corn, Sorghum)
152 Cropland (Cocoa, Coffee)/Secondary Forest
153 Fragmented Tropical Evergreen Forest/Cropland (Corn, Soybeans, Coffee)
154 Cropland/Woodland (Coffee, Vegetables)
155 Cropland/Woodland(Rice, Sorghum, Corn, Soybeans, Citrus)
156 Cropland/Fragmented Tropical Forest/Shrub Savanna
157 Cropland/Grassland (Corn, Soybean, Wheat)
158 Snow and Ice
159 Barren Or Sparely Vegetated
160 Barren Or Sparsely Vegetated
161 Barren Or Sparsely Vegetated (Dry Paramo)
162 Sparsely Vegetated (Dry Puna and Coastal Desert)
163 Sparsely Vegetated (Coastal Desert, Salt Playas)
164 Sparsely Vegetated
165 Inland Water
166 Ocean

4.2 Global Ecosystems Legend

Value Description
1 Urban
2 Low Sparse Grassland
3 Coniferous Forest
4 Deciduous Conifer Forest
5 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
6 Evergreen Broadleaf Forests
7 Tall Grasses and Shrubs
8 Bare Desert
9 Upland Tundra
10 Irrigated Grassland
11 Semi Desert
12 Glacier Ice
13 Wooded Wet Swamp
14 Inland Water
15 Sea Water
16 Shrub Evergreen
17 Shrub Deciduous
18 Mixed Forest and Field
19 Evergreen Forest and Fields
20 Cool Rain Forest
21 Conifer Boreal Forest
22 Cool Conifer Forest
23 Cool Mixed Forest
24 Mixed Forest
25 Cool Broadleaf Forest
26 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
27 Conifer Forest
28 Montane Tropical Forests
29 Seasonal Tropical Forest
30 Cool Crops and Towns
31 Crops and Town
32 Dry Tropical Woods
33 Tropical Rainforest
34 Tropical Degraded Forest
35 Corn and Beans Cropland
36 Rice Paddy and Field
37 Hot Irrigated Cropland
38 Cool Irrigated Cropland
39 Cold Irrigated Cropland
40 Cool Grasses and Shrubs
41 Hot and Mild Grasses and Shrubs
42 Cold Grassland
43 Savanna (Woods)
44 Mire, Bog, Fen
45 Marsh Wetland
46 Mediterranean Scrub
47 Dry Woody Scrub
48 Dry Evergreen Woods
49 Volcanic Rock
50 Sand Desert
51 Semi Desert Shrubs
52 Semi Desert Sage
53 Barren Tundra
54 Cool Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forests
55 Cool Fields and Woods
56 Forest and Field
57 Cool Forest and Field
58 Fields and Woody Savanna
59 Succulent and Thorn Scrub
60 Small Leaf Mixed Woods
61 Deciduous and Mixed Boreal Forest
62 Narrow Conifers
63 Wooded Tundra
64 Heath Scrub
65 Coastal Wetland, NW
66 Coastal Wetland, NE
67 Coastal Wetland, SE
68 Coastal Wetland, SW
69 Polar and Alpine Desert
70 Glacier Rock
71 Salt Playas
72 Mangrove
73 Water and Island Fringe
74 Land, Water, and Shore
75 Land and Water, Rivers
76 Crop and Water Mixtures
77 Southern Hemisphere Conifers
78 Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forest
79 Wet Sclerophylic Forest
80 Coastline Fringe
81 Beaches and Dunes
82 Sparse Dunes and Ridges
83 Bare Coastal Dunes
84 Residual Dunes and Beaches
85 Compound Coastlines
86 Rocky Cliffs and Slopes
87 Sandy Grassland and Shrubs
88 Bamboo
89 Moist Eucalyptus
90 Rain Green Tropical Forest
91 Woody Savanna
92 Broadleaf Crops
93 Grass Crops
94 Crops, Grass, Shrubs
95 Evergreen Tree Crop
96 Deciduous Tree Crop

4.3 IGBP Land Cover Legend

Value Description
1 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
2 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
3 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
4 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
5 Mixed Forest
6 Closed Shrublands
7 Open Shrublands
8 Woody Savannas
9 Savannas
10 Grasslands
11 Permanent Wetlands
12 Croplands
13 Urban and Built-Up
14 Cropland/Natural Vegetation Mosaic
15 Snow and Ice
16 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
17 Water Bodies

4.4 USGS Land Use/Land Cover System Legend (Modified Level 2)

Value Code Description
1 100 Urban and Built-Up Land
2 211 Dryland Cropland and Pasture
3 212 Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
4 213 Mixed Dryland/Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
5 280 Cropland/Grassland Mosaic
6 290 Cropland/Woodland Mosaic
7 311 Grassland
8 321 Shrubland
9 330 Mixed Shrubland/Grassland
10 332 Savanna
11 411 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
12 412 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
13 421 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
14 422 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
15 430 Mixed Forest
16 500 Water Bodies
17 620 Herbaceous Wetland
18 610 Wooded Wetland
19 770 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
20 820 Herbaceous Tundra
21 810 Wooded Tundra
22 850 Mixed Tundra
23 830 Bare Ground Tundra
24 900 Snow or Ice

4.5 Simple Biosphere Model Legend
Value Description
1 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees
2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees
3 Deciduous and Evergreen Trees
4 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees
5 Deciduous Needleleaf Trees
6 Ground Cover with Trees and Shrubs
7 Groundcover Only
8 Broadleaf Shrubs with Perennial Ground Cover
9 Broadleaf Shrubs with Bare Soil
10 Groundcover with Dwarf Trees and Shrubs
11 Bare Soil
12 Agriculture or C3 Grassland
17 Persistent Wetland
18 Dry Coastal Complexes
19 Water
20 Ice Cap and Glacier

4.6 Simple Biosphere 2 Model Legend

Value Description
1 Broadleaf Evergreen Trees
2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees
3 Broadleaf and Needleleaf Trees
4 Needleleaf Evergreen Trees
5 Needleleaf Deciduous Trees
6 Short Vegetation/C4 Grassland
7 Shrubs with Bare Soil
8 Dwarf Trees and Shrubs
9 Agriculture or C3 Grassland
10 Water, Wetlands
11 Ice/Snow

4.7 Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme Legend

Value Description
1 Crops, Mixed Farming
2 Short Grass
3 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees
4 Deciduous Needleleaf Tree
5 Deciduous Broadleaf Trees
6 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees
7 Tall Grass
8 Desert
9 Tundra
10 Irrigated Crops
11 Semidesert
12 Ice Caps and Glaciers
13 Bogs and Marshes
14 Inland Water
15 Ocean
16 Evergreen Shrubs
17 Deciduous Shrubs
18 Mixed Forest
19 Forest/Field Mosaic
20 Water and Land Mixtures

4.8 Running Vegetation Lifeforms Legend

Value Description
1 Evergreen Needleleaf Vegetation
2 Evergreen Broadleaf Vegetation
3 Deciduous Needleleaf Vegetation
4 Deciduous Broadleaf Vegetation
5 Annual Broadleaf Vegetation
6 Annual Grass Vegetation
7 Non-vegetated Land
8 Water Bodies

5.0 Information on Version 2.0

The first version of the global land cover database was completed and released to the public in November, 1997.  We applied the feedback we received from the users of this database (Brown and others, 1999) and broad lessons learned from the validation exercise of the IGBP DISCover land cover data (Scepan, 1999; Muchoney and others, 1999) to the development of this revised version of the database.  Version 2.0 of the South America land cover database contains updated land cover classes and revised labels.  Users can identify the revised images and documentation by observing  "2.0" or "2_0" in file names (for example, saigbp2_0g.img).  Links to the previous version (1.2) of the land cover database are found on glcc_version1.php. Please send any questions to our Land Cover Applications Center ( lcac@usgs.gov ).

We have provided the specific changes to the South America land cover database in the ascii text file, salcdbtab2_0.txt.   The file contains 42 fields (columns) and the data are of variable width with tabs as field delimiters.  The first record of the file corresponds to the field titles.  The following records in the file are indexed by the second field to the South America Seasonal Land Cover Regions (Version 2.0).  The field entitled "Update" contains information specific to the action taken in order to revise the particular Seasonal Land Cover Region (for example, the class was split, merged with another region, or relabeled).

6.0 References

Anderson, J.R., Hardy, E.E., Roach J.T., and Witmer R.E., 1976, A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 28 p.

Belward, A.S., ed., 1996, The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set (DISCover)-proposal and implementation plans: IGBP-DIS Working Paper No. 13, Toulouse, France, 61 p.

Brown, J.F., Loveland, T.R., Ohlen, D.O., Zhu, Z., 1999. The Global Land-Cover Characteristics Database: The Users' Perspective. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1,069-1,074.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., Kennedy, P.J., and Wilson, M.F., 1986, Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model: NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN275+STR, Boulder, CO. 69 p.

Loveland, T.R., Zhu, Z., Ohlen, D.O., Brown, J.F., Reed, B.C., and Yang, L., 1999. An Analysis of the IGBP Global Land-Cover Characterization Process. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1021-1032.

Muchoney, D., Strahler, A., Hodges, J., and LoCastro, J., 1999. The IGBP DISCover Confidence Sites and the System for Terrestrial Ecosystem Parameterization: Tools for Validating Global Land-Cover Data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1061-1067.

Olson, J.S., 1994a, Global ecosystem framework-definitions: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 37 p.

_____ 1994b, Global ecosystem framework-translation strategy: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 39 p.

Running, S.W., Loveland, T.R., and Pierce, L.L., 1994. A Vegetation Classification Logic Based on Remote Sensing for Use in Global Biogeochemical Models, Ambio , v. 23, n. 1, p. 77-81.

Scepan, J., 1999. Thematic Validation of High-Resolution Global Land-Cover Data Sets, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1051-1060.

Sellers, P.J., Mintz, Y., Sud, Y.C., and Dalcher A., 1986, A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models: Journal of Atmospheric Science , v. 43, p. 505-531.

Sellers, P.J., Randall, D.A., Collatz, G.J., Berry, J.A., Field, C.B., Dazlich, D.A., Zhang, C., Collelo, G.D., and Bounoua, L., 1996, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs - Part I-model formulation: Journal of Climate , v. 9, p. 676-705.

Steinwand, D.R., 1994, Mapping raster imagery to the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection: International Journal of Remote Sensing , v. 15, no. 17, p. 3,463-3,472.

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