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USGS - science for a changing world

Global Land Cover Characterization

North America Land Cover Characteristics Data Base Version 1.2


PLEASE NOTE: This is the Version 1.2 release of the North America land cover characteristics data base. It has not yet been validated and is subject to review. Following validation, the data base will be modified based on the lessons learned.


Table of Contents

1.0 Data Description

The North America land cover data base is one portion of a global land cover characteristics data base that is being developed on a continent-by-continent basis. All continents in the global data base share the same map projections (Interrupted Goode Homolosine and Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area), have 1-km nominal spatial resolution, and are based on 1-km AVHRR data spanning April 1992 through March 1993. Each continental data base has unique elements that are based on the salient geographic aspects of the specific continent. In addition, a core set of derived thematic maps produced through the aggregation of seasonal land cover regions are included in each continental data base. These are:


The legends for each of these derived data sets can be found in Section 4.2 - 4.7.

The North America land cover characteristics data are in a flat, headerless raster format. The pixel values correspond to class numbers defined in the appropriate land cover classification scheme legend. Data are distributed as compressed and uncompressed single-band images. The files can be obtained either by anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp) or downloaded from the LP Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) World Wide Web site: (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/na_int.asp). The instructions for accessing these files are contained in the following two sections.

1.1 Anonymous FTP for PC or UNIX Users

  1. Contact the FTP server. At your command prompt, use the command: ftp edcftp.cr.usgs.gov
  2. Login as an anonymous user and use your email address as the password.
  3. Change to the directory pub/data/glcc
  4. Change to the North America subdirectory, na
  5. Change to the directory for the projection of interest (i.e., goode for Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or lambert for Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection).
  6. Locate the file of interest (a complete file listing is located in section 3.0 of this readme). The image files were compressed using the GNU 'gzip' software and can be identified by the ".gz" file extension. These files must be uncompressed before use with the 'gunzip' utility, a part of the 'gzip' software. Directions for acquiring the gzip software from GNU can be found on the WWW on the GNU home page (http://www.gnu.org/). If you do not have access to gzip, the ftp server can uncompress the files as they are retrieved.
  7. To FTP compressed files:
  8. To FTP uncompressed files:

1.2 Downloading from the World Wide Web Site

From the North America Land Cover page, select either data in Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or data in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection. The selection will link to a page that contains links to all documentation files and the image files (both compressed and uncompressed). NOTE: World Wide Web browsers can vary in how the files will be downloaded. On PCs, some browsers will allow a user to interactively select the location where the file will be saved and to edit the file name. However, on certain browsers files may be automatically downloaded to a default storage location on the local system.

  1. Select either button, compressed or uncompressed, for the file of interest.
  2. A pop-up screen may appear, showing information on the download procedure. At this point, choose the directory in which to save the file.
  3. For compressed files, the .gz extension must be added to the filename before downloading. However, if the browser will not accept adding an extension, continue with the download, and then rename the file with the .gz extension when the download is complete.
  4. For uncompressed files, leave the .gz extension off. If a pop-up screen shows the filename with a .gz extension either edit the filename, or proceed with the download and rename the file without the extension after the procedure is complete.

2.0 Geometric Characteristics

The North America data base is available in two different map projections: the Interrupted Goode Homolosine and the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (see Steinwand, 1994 , and Steinwand and others, 1995, for a complete description of these projections).

2.1 Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection for the North America land cover characteristics data set are 7,793 lines (rows) and 11,329 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 88 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Interrupted Goode Homolosine


2.2 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection for the North America land cover characteristics data set are 8,996 lines (rows) and 9,223 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 83 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area


3.0 File Listing

FILE (OR DIRECTORY ) DATA TYPE DESCRIPTION
/pub/data/glcc/na   North America
/pub/data/glcc/na/goode   Goode's Interrupted Homolosine Projection
nadoc1_2.txt ascii North America readme text
naslcr1_2.leg ascii North America Seasonal land cover regions legend
bats.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge.leg ascii Global Ecosystems legend
sib.leg ascii SIB legend
sib2.leg ascii SIB2 legend
usgs.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
nabats1_2g.img.gz byte BATS image
nademg.img.gz I*2 DEM image
naigbp1_2g.img.gz byte IGBP image
naoge1_2g.img.gz byte Global Ecosystems image
nasib1_2g.img.gz byte SIB image
nasib21_2g.img.gz byte SIB2 image
naslcr1_2g.img.gz byte Seasonal land cover regions image
naurbang.img.gz byte Digital Chart of the World urban image
nausgs1_2g.img.gz byte USGS land use/land cover image

/pub/data/glcc/na/goode/ndvimon   Monthly NDVI Composite Images
naaprndg.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
namayndg.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
najunndg.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
najulndg.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
naaugndg.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
nasepndg.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
naoctndg.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
nanovndg.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
nadecndg.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
najanndg.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
nafebndg.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
namarndg.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

/pub/data/glcc/na/lambert   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection
nadoc1_2.txt ascii North America readme text
naslcr1_2.leg ascii North America seasonal land cover regions legend
bats.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge.leg ascii Global Ecosystems legend
sib.leg ascii SIB legend
sib2.leg ascii SIB2 legend
usgs.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
nabats1_2l.img.gz byte BATS image
nademl.img.gz I*2 DEM image
naigbp1_2l.img.gz byte IGBP image
naoge1_2l.img.gz byte Global Ecosystems image
nasib1_2l.img.gz byte SIB image
nasib21_2l.img.gz byte SIB2 image
naslcr1_2l.img.gz byte Seasonal land cover regions image
naurbanl.img.gz byte DCW urban image
nausgs1_2l.img.gz byte USGS land use/land cover image

/pub/data/glcc/na/lambert/ndvimon   Monthly NDVI Composite Images
naaprndl.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
namayndl.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
najunndl.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
najulndl.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
naaugndl.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
nasepndl.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
naoctndl.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
nanovndl.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
nadecndl.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
najanndl.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
nafebndl.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
namarndl.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

4.0 Derived Data Sets

4.1 North America Seasonal Land Cover Regions Legend

North America, v. 1.2

Value Description
1 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS AND PASTURE) WITH GRASSLANDS
2 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS) WITH GRASSLANDS
3 CROPLAND (COFFEE, SUGAR CANE, MIXED CROPS)
4 CROPLAND
5 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS, PASTURE) WITH DECIDUOUS WOODLANDS
6 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS, ROW CROPS)
7 CROPLAND (WINTER WHEAT)
8 CROPLAND (CORN AND SOYBEANS)
9 CROPLAND (CORN AND OTHER ROW CROPS, FORAGE CROPS)
10 CROPLAND (TRUCK CROPS) WITH DECIDUOUS WOODLANDS (OAK)
11 CROPLAND (CORN AND SOYBEANS)
12 CROPLAND (CORN AND SOYBEANS)
13 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS, HAY, PASTURE) WITH WETLANDS
14 CROPLAND (MIXED ROW CROPS) WITH WOODLAND
15 CROPLAND (GRASS SEED, SMALL GRAINS) WITH MIXED WOODLANDS
16 CROPLAND (CULTIVATED GRASSLAND)
17 CROPLAND (WINTER WHEAT)
18 CROPLAND (SUGAR CANE)
19 CROPLAND (COTTON, SOYBEANS, RICE)
20 CROPLAND (SUGAR CANE)
21 CROPLAND (CULTIVATED GRASSES) WITH WOODLAND
22 CROPLAND (CULTIVATED GRASSES) WITH SAVANNA
23 CROPLAND (CORN, SOYBEANS, COTTON, RICE) WITH WOODLANDS
24 CROPLAND WITH SAVANNA
25 CROPLAND
26 CROPLAND
27 CROPLAND WITH GRASSLAND
28 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE
29 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE
30 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE
31 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE
32 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE
33 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE
34 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE
35 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE
36 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE
37 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE
38 CROPLAND/DECIDUOUS FOREST (ASPEN) MOSAIC
39 CROPLAND, WOODLAND, URBAN MOSAIC
40 CROPLAND/WOODLAND (MAPLE, BEECH, BIRCH) MOSAIC
41 CROPLAND (CORN, SOYBEANS, ALFALFA)/WOODLAND MOSAIC
42 CROPLAND (CORN, SOYBEANS, PASTURE)/WOODLAND (MAPLE, ELM)
43 CROPLAND (CORN, SMALL GRAINS)/DECIDUOUS FOREST (OAK, HICKORY)
44 CROPLAND (CORN, SOYBEANS, PASTURE)/WOODLAND (OAK, HICKORY)
45 CROPLAND/DECIDUOUS FOREST
46 CROPLAND/WOODLAND
47 CROPLAND(CORN, COTTON, SOYBEANS)/EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (SLASH PINE)
48 GRASSLAND, CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS), FALLOW MOSAIC
49 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS, PASTURE)/GRASSLAND MOSAIC
50 GRASSLAND/CROPLAND (WHEAT, CORN) MOSAIC
51 CROPLAND (ROW CROPS, SMALL GRAINS)/GRASSLAND MOSAIC
52 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS, ROW CROPS)/GRASSLAND
53 CROPLAND (CORN, SORGHUM, SMALL GRAINS)/GRASSLAND MOSAIC
54 CROPLAND/GRASSLAND
55 CROPLAND (CORN, COTTON, SORGHUM, PASTURE)/GRASSLAND MOSAIC
56 CROPLAND (PASTURE)/GRASSLAND MOSAIC
57 WET HERBACEOUS MEADOWS
58 GRASSLAND (SHORT- MID GRASS PRAIRIE)
59 GRASSLAND (SHORT GRASS PRAIRIE)
60 GRASSLAND WITH CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS)
61 MIXED RANGELAND (GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND)
62 GRASSLAND
63 GRASSLAND (WARM SEASON GRASSES)
64 GRASSLAND WITH CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS, PASTURE)
65 MIXED RANGELAND (GRASSLAND AND SHRUBLAND)
66 GRASSLAND WITH WOODLAND AND WETLANDS
67 GRASSLAND WITH CROPLAND
68 GRASSLAND (TALL GRASS PRAIRIE)
69 GRASSLAND WITH CROPLAND
70 SAVANNA
71 GRASSLAND
72 MIXED RANGELAND (NEEDLEGRASS, BIG SAGE, RABBITBRUSH)
73 MIXED RANGELAND (SALTBUSH, SAND SAGE, RABBITBRUSH)
74 MIXED RANGELAND (SHRUBS AND GRASSES)
75 MIXED RANGELAND (GRASSLAND, SHRUBLAND) WITH CROPS, FALLOW
76 SPARSELY VEGETATED DESERT SHRUBLANDS
77 DESERT SHRUBLANDS (CREOSOTE, SALTBUSH, SAND SAGE) - SONORAN
78 TALL SHRUBS (WILLOW, BIRCH, ALDER)
79 DESERT SHRUBLAND (CREOSOTE, SALTBUSH, MESQUITE, SAND SAGE)
80 DESERT SHRUBLAND (CREOSOTE, SALTBUSH, SAND SAGE, MESQUITE) - CHIHUAHAN
81 TALL/LOW SHRUBS (WILLOW, ALDER) AND WET HERBACEOUS
82 DESERT SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND (CREOSOTE, SALTBUSH, MESQUITE, SAND SAGE)
83 TALL/LOW SHRUBS, TUNDRA, SPRUCE
84 DESERT SHRUBLANDS (CREOSOTE, SALTBUSH, MESQUITE, SAND SAGE)
85 TALL/LOW SHRUBS, TUNDRA, SPRUCE
86 DESERT SHRUBLAND (CREOSOTE, SALTBUSH, MESQUITE, CACTUS) WITH GRASSES
87 TALL SHRUBS (WILLOW, BIRCH, ALDER) AND WET HERBACEOUS MEADOWS
88 CHAPARRAL
89 OAK SAVANNA
90 DECIDUOUS DRY FOREST WITH SAVANNA PATCHES
91 WOODY SAVANNA
92 OAK WOODLANDS
93 GRASSLAND/WOODLAND (OAK) MOSAIC WITH CROPLAND
94 GRASSLAND/FOREST
95 DECIDUOUS FOREST AND TALL SHRUBS (WILLOW, BIRCH, ALDER)
96 MIXED FOREST (ASPEN, BIRCH, SPRUCE)
97 DECIDUOUS FOREST (ASPEN)
98 OPEN MIXED FOREST (ASPEN, BIRCH, WHITE SPRUCE, BLACK SPRUCE)
99 MIXED FOREST (ASPEN, BIRCH, BALSAM POPLAR, BLACK AND WHITE SPRUCE)
100 DECIDUOUS FOREST (ASPEN) WITH PASTURE
101 DECIDUOUS WOODLAND (OAK, POPULUS) WITH CONIFER SPECIES
102 MIXED FOREST (BLACK AND WHITE SPRUCE, ASPEN, BIRCH)
103 DECIDUOUS FOREST (ASPEN)
104 DECIDUOUS WOODLANDS (ASPEN)/SHRUBLANDS (MOUNTAIN MAHOGANY)
105 MIXED FOREST (ASPEN, BIRCH, SPRUCE, BALSAM FIR)
106 DECIDUOUS FOREST (MAPLE, BEECH, BIRCH) WITH CROPLAND (PASTURE, HAY)
107 DECIDUOUS DRY FOREST
108 DECIDUOUS FOREST (OAK)
109 DECIDUOUS FOREST (MAPLE, BEECH, BIRCH, OAK, HICKORY) WITH PASTURE
110 TROPICAL DRY FOREST
111 DECIDUOUS FOREST (OAK, HICKORY, SWEET GUM, SOUTHERN PINES) WITH CROPLAND AND PASTURE
112 SEMI-DECIDUOUS TROPICAL FOREST
113 SEMI-DECIDUOUS DRY FOREST
114 SEMI-DECIDUOUS TROPICAL FOREST
115 MONTANE TROPICAL BROADLEAF FOREST
116 TROPICAL BROADLEAF FOREST
117 TROPICAL BROADLEAF FOREST
118 DEGRADED TROPICAL FOREST
119 DEGRADED TROPICAL FOREST
120 EVERGREEN BROADLEAF TROPICAL FOREST
121 SUBALPINE FOREST (ENGLEMANN SPRUCE, SUBALPINE FIR, DOUGLAS FIR)
122 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (BALSAM FIR, WHITE SPRUCE, BLACK SPRUCE)
123 WHITE, BLACK SPRUCE FOREST
124 SPRUCE FOREST
125 PONDEROSA, LODGEPOLE PINE FOREST
126 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (BALSAM FIR, BLACK SPRUCE, WHITE SPRUCE)
127 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST AND WOODLAND (BLACK AND WHITE SPRUCE)
128 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (LODGEPOLE PINE AND DOUGLAS FIR)
129 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (ENGLEMANN SPRUCE, LODGEPOLE PINE, DOUGLAS FIR)
130 OPEN BLACK SPRUCE FOREST WITH BALSAM FIR, ASPEN, BIRCH
131 NEEDLELEAF BOREAL FOREST (BLACK AND WHITE SPRUCE, TAMARACK, ASPEN)
132 NEEDLELEAF BOREAL FOREST (BLACK AND WHITE SPRUCE, ASPEN, BIRCH)
133 OPEN EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (PONDEROSA PINE)
134 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (LODGEPOLE PINE, ENGLEMANN SPRUCE, PONDEROSA PINE)
135 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (DOUGLAS FIR, SPRUCE, WESTERN RED CEDAR)
136 SPRUCE AND PINE FOREST
137 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (SPRUCE, JACK PINE, ASPEN, BIRCH, TAMARACK)
138 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (HEMLOCK, SPRUCE, DOUGLAS FIR)
139 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (PONDEROSA PINE, DOUGLAS FIR, WESTERN RED CEDAR)
140 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (DOUGLAS FIR, LODGEPOLE PINE, LARCH, WESTERN RED CEDAR)
141 OPEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (PONDEROSA PINE, LODGEPOLE PINE)
142 MIXED BOREAL FOREST (ASPEN, BIRCH, SPRUCE, PINE)
143 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (LODGEPOLE PINE, PONDEROSA PINE, ENGLEMANN SPRUCE, SUBALPINE FIR)
144 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (SITKA SPRUCE, WESTERN HEMLOCK)
145 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (RED PINE, JACK PINE, SPRUCE, ASPEN, BIRCH, TAMARACK)
146 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (WESTERN RED CEDAR, LODGEPOLE PINE, DOUGLAS FIR, LARCH, PONDEROSA PINE)
147 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (PONDEROSA, LODGEPOLE AND WHITE PINE, DOUGLAS FIR)
148 PONDEROSA PINE FOREST
149 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (DOUGLAS FIR, LODGEPOLE PINE, WESTERN WHITE PINE)
150 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (CHIHUAHUA PINE, APACHE PINE)
151 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (DOUGLAS FIR, PONDEROSA, JEFFREY PINE)
152 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (PONDEROSA PINE)
153 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (SPRUCE, BALSAM FIR, EASTERN WHITE PINE, EASTERN HEMLOCK)
154 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (DOUGLAS FIR) WITH MIXED HARDWOODS
155 OPEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (PONDEROSA PINE, PINYON-JUNIPER)
156 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (PINE)
157 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (DOUGLAS FIR)
158 NEEDLELEAF FOREST (WESTERN HEMLOCK, SITKA SPRUCE, DOUGLAS FIR)
159 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (LOBLOLLY, SLASH PINE) WITH HARDWOODS (GUM, CYPRESS)
160 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (DOUGLAS FIR, WESTERN HEMLOCK, PONDEROSA PINE)
161 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (DOUGLAS FIR, PONDEROSA PINE, REDWOODS)
162 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST (LONGLEAF, SLASH PINE)
163 CARIBBEAN MONTANE PINE FOREST
164 OPEN MIXED FOREST (SPRUCE, ASPEN)
165 MIXED FOREST (BALSAM FIR, JACK PINE, BLACK AND WHITE SPRUCE, JACK PINE, ASPEN, BIRCH)
166 MIXED FOREST (PINE, OAK)
167 MIXED FOREST (PINE, OAK)
168 MIXED FOREST (ASPEN, MAPLE, OAK, JACK PINE, RED PINE, SPRUCE)
169 MIXED FOREST (PINE, OAK)
170 MIXED FOREST (PINE, OAK)
171 MIXED FOREST (OAK, PINE SPECIES)
172 DECIDUOUS SHRUBLAND (OAK) WITH PINYON-JUNIPER
173 DECIDUOUS TROPICAL DRYLAND WOODLAND
174 SPRUCE WOODLANDS AND SHRUB BOGS
175 BLACK SPRUCE WOODLANDS, BOGS
176 SUBALPINE TRANSITIONAL FOREST
177 WHITE SPRUCE AND BLACK SPRUCE FENS
178 OPEN SPRUCE FOREST WITH TALL SHRUBS (WILLOW, BIRCH, ALDER)
179 BLACK SPRUCE, TAMARACK, LICHEN WOODLAND
180 JUNIPER WOODLAND
181 PINYON-JUNIPER WOODLAND
182 SPRUCE WOODLANDS WITH LOW/TALL SHRUBS
183 PONDEROSA/LODGEPOLE PINE WOODLAND
184 PINYON-JUNIPER WOODLAND
185 PINYON-JUNIPER WOODLAND
186 NORTHERN MIXED FOREST (MAPLE, BEECH, BIRCH, PINE)
187 SHRUB FENS AND BOGS (WILLOW, ALDER, BIRCH, BLACK SPRUCE)
188 MIXED WETLANDS; HERBACEOUS AND WOODY (MANGROVE)
189 SPARSELY VEGETATED ARCTIC TUNDRA
190 HERBACEOUS ALPINE TUNDRA WITH LOW/DWARF SHRUBS
191 HERBACEOUS ARCTIC TUNDRA
192 HERBACEOUS ALPINE TUNDRA
193 HERBACEOUS ARCTIC TUNDRA
194 SPARSELY VEGETATED ALPINE SHRUBLANDS
195 WOODY ALPINE TUNDRA
196 HERBACEOUS ARCTIC TUNDRA WITH LOW/DWARF SHRUBS
197 WOODY ARCTIC TUNDRA WITH LICHEN
198 HERBACEOUS ALPINE TUNDRA WITH LOW/DWARF SHRUBS
199 HERBACEOUS ARCTIC TUNDRA
200 WOODY ARCTIC TUNDRA (DWARF/LOW SHRUBS)
201 WOODY ARCTIC TUNDRA, TALL, LOW, AND DWARF SHRUBLAND
202 ICE AND SNOW
203 BARREN OR SPARSELY VEGETATED
204 BARREN
205 WATER

4.2 Global Ecosystems Legend

Value Description
1 Urban
2 Low Sparse Grassland
3 Coniferous Forest
4 Deciduous Conifer Forest
5 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
6 Evergreen Broadleaf Forests
7 Tall Grasses and Shrubs
8 Bare Desert
9 Upland Tundra
10 Irrigated Grassland
11 Semi Desert
12 Glacier Ice
13 Wooded Wet Swamp
14 Inland Water (see Note 1)
15 Sea Water (see Note 1)
16 Shrub Evergreen
17 Shrub Deciduous
18 Mixed Forest and Field
19 Evergreen Forest and Fields
20 Cool Rain Forest
21 Conifer Boreal Forest
22 Cool Conifer Forest
23 Cool Mixed Forest
24 Mixed Forest
25 Cool Broadleaf Forest
26 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
27 Conifer Forest
28 Montane Tropical Forests
29 Seasonal Tropical Forest
30 Cool Crops and Towns
31 Crops and Town
32 Dry Tropical Woods
33 Tropical Rainforest
34 Tropical Degraded Forest
35 Corn and Beans Cropland
36 Rice Paddy and Field
37 Hot Irrigated Cropland
38 Cool Irrigated Cropland
39 Cold Irrigated Cropland
40 Cool Grasses and Shrubs
41 Hot and Mild Grasses and Shrubs
42 Cold Grassland
43 Savanna (Woods)
44 Mire, Bog, Fen
45 Marsh Wetland
46 Mediterranean Scrub
47 Dry Woody Scrub
48 Dry Evergreen Woods
49 Volcanic Rock
50 Sand Desert
51 Semi Desert Shrubs
52 Semi Desert Sage
53 Barren Tundra
54 Cool Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forests
55 Cool Fields and Woods
56 Forest and Field
57 Cool Forest and Field
58 Fields and Woody Savanna
59 Succulent and Thorn Scrub
60 Small Leaf Mixed Woods
61 Deciduous and Mixed Boreal Forest
62 Narrow Conifers
63 Wooded Tundra
64 Heath Scrub
65 Coastal Wetland, NW
66 Coastal Wetland, NE
67 Coastal Wetland, SE
68 Coastal Wetland, SW
69 Polar and Alpine Desert
70 Glacier Rock
71 Salt Playas
72 Mangrove
73 Water and Island Fringe
74 Land, Water, and Shore (see Note 1)
75 Land and Water, Rivers (see Note 1)
76 Crop and Water Mixtures
77 Southern Hemisphere Conifers
78 Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forest
79 Wet Sclerophylic Forest
80 Coastline Fringe
81 Beaches and Dunes
82 Sparse Dunes and Ridges
83 Bare Coastal Dunes
84 Residual Dunes and Beaches
85 Compound Coastlines
86 Rocky Cliffs and Slopes
87 Sandy Grassland and Shrubs
88 Bamboo
89 Moist Eucalyptus
90 Rain Green Tropical Forest
91 Woody Savanna
92 Broadleaf Crops
93 Grass Crops
94 Crops, Grass, Shrubs
Note 1: In Version 1.2, all water is mapped to one digital value (14).

4.3 IGBP Land Cover Legend

Value Description
1 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
2 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
3 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
4 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
5 Mixed Forest
6 Closed Shrublands
7 Open Shrublands
8 Woody Savannas
9 Savannas
10 Grasslands
11 Permanent Wetlands
12 Croplands
13 Urban and Built-Up
14 Cropland/Natural Vegetation Mosaic
15 Snow and Ice
16 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
17 Water Bodies

4.4 USGS Land Use/Land Cover System Legend (Modified Level 2)
Value Code Description
1 100 Urban and Built-Up Land
2 211 Dryland Cropland and Pasture
3 212 Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
4 213 Mixed Dryland/Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
5 280 Cropland/Grassland Mosaic
6 290 Cropland/Woodland Mosaic
7 311 Grassland
8 321 Shrubland
9 330 Mixed Shrubland/Grassland
10 332 Savanna
11 411 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
12 412 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
13 421 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
14 422 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
15 430 Mixed Forest
16 500 Water Bodies
17 620 Herbaceous Wetland
18 610 Wooded Wetland
19 770 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
20 820 Herbaceous Tundra
21 810 Wooded Tundra
22 850 Mixed Tundra
23 830 Bare Ground Tundra
24 900 Snow or Ice

4.5 Simple Biosphere Model Legend

Value Description
1 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees
2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees
3 Deciduous and Evergreen Trees
4 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees
5 Deciduous Needleleaf Trees
6 Ground Cover with Trees and Shrubs
7 Groundcover Only
8 Broadleaf Shrubs with Perennial Ground Cover
9 Broadleaf Shrubs with Bare Soil
10 Groundcover with Dwarf Trees and Shrubs
11 Bare Soil
12 Agriculture or C3 Grassland
17 Persistent Wetland
18 Dry Coastal Complexes
19 Water
20 Ice Cap and Glacier

4.6 Simple Biosphere 2 Model Legend

Value Description
1 Broadleaf Evergreen Trees
2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees
3 Broadleaf and Needleleaf Trees
4 Needleleaf Evergreen Trees
5 Needleleaf Deciduous Trees
6 Short Vegetation/C4 Grassland
7 Shrubs with Bare Soil
8 Dwarf Trees and Shrubs
9 Agriculture or C3 Grassland
10 Water, Wetlands, Ice/Snow

4.7 Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme Legend

Value Description
1 Crops, Mixed Farming
2 Short Grass
3 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees
4 Deciduous Needleleaf Tree
5 Deciduous Broadleaf Trees
6 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees
7 Tall Grass
8 Desert
9 Tundra
10 Irrigated Crops
11 Semidesert
12 Ice Caps and Glaciers
13 Bogs and Marshes
14 Inland Water
15 Ocean
16 Evergreen Shrubs
17 Deciduous Shrubs
18 Mixed Forest
19 Interrupted Forest
20 Water and Land Mixtures

5.0 References

Anderson, J.R., Hardy, E.E., Roach J.T., and Witmer R.E., 1976, A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 28 p.

Belward, A.S., ed., 1996, The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set (DISCover)-proposal and implementation plans: IGBP-DIS Working Paper No. 13, Toulouse, France, 61 p.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., Kennedy, P.J., and Wilson, M.F., 1986, Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model: NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN275+STR, Boulder, CO. 69 p.

Olson, J.S., 1994a, Global ecosystem framework-definitions: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 37 p.

_____ 1994b, Global ecosystem framework-translation strategy: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 39 p.

Sellers, P.J., Mintz, Y., Sud, Y.C., and Dalcher A., 1986, A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models: Journal of Atmospheric Science, v. 43, p. 505-531.

Sellers, P.J., Randall, D.A., Collatz, G.J., Berry, J.A., Field, C.B., Dazlich, D.A., Zhang, C., Collelo, G.D., and Bounoua, L., 1996, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs - Part I-model formulation: Journal of Climate, v. 9, p. 676-705.

Steinwand, D.R., 1994, Mapping raster imagery to the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 15, no. 17, p. 3,463-3,472.

Steinwand, D.R., Hutchinson, J.A., and Snyder, J.P. ,1995, Map projections for global and continental data sets and an analysis of pixel distortion caused by reprojection: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 61, p. 1,487-1,497.

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