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USGS - science for a changing world

Global Land Cover Characterization

Eurasia Land Cover Characteristics Data Base Version 2.0



PLEASE NOTE: This is the Version 2.0 release of the Eurasia land cover characteristics data base. The land cover information has been updated from Version 1.2.  Please read section 5.0 for information about the revision process and what changes have been made to the data. 

Table of Contents

1.0 Data Description

The Eurasia land cover data base is one portion of a global land cover characteristics data base that was developed on a continent-by-continent basis. All continents in the global data base share the same map projections (Interrupted Goode Homolosine and Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area), have 1-km nominal spatial resolution, and are based on 1-km AVHRR data spanning April 1992 through March 1993 (Loveland and others, 1999). Each continental data base has unique elements that are based on the salient geographic aspects of the specific continent. In addition, a core set of derived thematic maps produced through the aggregation of seasonal land cover regions are included in each continental data base. These are:

The legends for each of these derived data sets can be found in Section 4.2 - 4.8.

For a description of the methodology for the global data base, see the global readme file found under the LP DAAC home page (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/glcc.html).

The Eurasia land cover characteristics data are in a flat, headerless raster format. The pixel values correspond to class numbers defined in the appropriate land cover classification scheme legend. Data are distributed as compressed and uncompressed single-band images. The files can be obtained either by anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp) or downloaded from the LP Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) World Wide Web site: (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/ea_int.html). The instructions for accessing these files are contained in the following two sections.

1.1 Anonymous FTP for PC or UNIX Users

  1. Contact the FTP server. At your command prompt, use the command: ftp edcftp.cr.usgs.gov
  2. Login as an anonymous user and use your email address as the password.
  3. Change to the directory pub/data/glcc
  4. Change to the Eurasia subdirectory, ea
  5. Change to the directory for the projection of interest (i.e., goode for Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or lamberta/lamberte for Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection).
  6. Locate the file of interest (a complete file listing is located in section 3.0 of this readme). The image files were compressed using the GNU 'gzip' software and can be identified by the ".gz" file extension. These files must be uncompressed before use with the 'gunzip' utility, a part of the 'gzip' software. Directions for acquiring the gzip software from GNU can be found on the WWW on the GNU home page (http://www.gnu.org/). If you do not have access to gzip, the ftp server can uncompress the files as they are retrieved.
  7. To FTP compressed files:
  8. To FTP uncompressed files:
1.2 Downloading from the World Wide Web Site

From the Eurasia Land Cover page, select either data in Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or data in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection. The selection will link to a page that contains links to all documentation files and the image files (both compressed and uncompressed). NOTE: World Wide Web browsers can vary in how the files will be downloaded. On PCs, some browsers will allow a user to interactively select the location where the file will be saved and to edit the file name. However, on certain browsers files may be automatically downloaded to a default storage location on the local system.

  1. Select either button, compressed or uncompressed, for the file of interest.
  2. A pop-up screen may appear, showing information on the download procedure. At this point, choose the directory in which to save the file.
  3. For compressed files, the .gz extension must be added to the filename before downloading. However, if the browser will not accept adding an extension, continue with the download, and then rename the file with the .gz extension when the download is complete.
  4. For uncompressed files, leave the .gz extension off. If a pop-up screen shows the filename with a .gz extension either edit the filename, or proceed with the download and rename the file without the extension after the procedure is complete.
2.0 Geometric Characteristics

The Eurasia data base is available in three different map projections: the Interrupted Goode Homolosine, the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area optimized for Europe, and the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area optimized for Asia (see Steinwand, 1994 , and Steinwand and others, 1995, for a complete description of these projections).

2.1 Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection for the Eurasia land cover characteristics data set are 8,570 lines (rows) and 13,800 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 118 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Interrupted Goode Homolosine

2.2 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters

Because the Eurasia land mass covers an extensive range of longitudes, projecting the entire data set into an equal area projection results in extreme angular distortion for areas far from the projection's longitude of origin. Rather than reprojecting the data using one projection with a central meridian in the center of the Eurasia land mass, we have elected to use two sets of projection parameters for the Eurasia data base, one optimized for Europe and one optimized for Asia.

2.2.1 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters (optimized for Europe)

The data dimensions of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection for the Eurasia land cover characteristics data set optimized for Europe are 13,000 lines (rows) and 13,000 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 169 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

2.2.2 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters (optimized for Asia)

The data dimensions of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection for the Eurasia land cover characteristics data set optimized for Asia are 12,000 lines (rows) and 13,000 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 156 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters:

Projection Type: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

3.0 File Listing

File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/ea   Eurasia
/pub/data/glcc/ea/goode   Goodes Interupted Homolosine Projection
eadoc2_0.txt ascii Eurasia readme text
easlcr2_0.leg ascii Eurasia seasonal land cover regions legend
ealcdbtab2_0.txt ascii Eurasia land Cover database table (tab delimited text)
bats2_0.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp2_0.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge2_0.leg ascii Olson Global Ecosystems legend
run2_0.leg ascii Running Vegetation Lifeforms legend
sib2_0.leg ascii SiB legend
sib22_0.leg ascii SiB2 legend
usgs2_0.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
eabats2_0g.img.gz byte Eurasia BATS image
eademg.img.gz 16bit Eurasia DEM image
eaigbp2_0g.img.gz byte Eurasia IGBP image
eaoge2_0g.img.gz byte Eurasia Olson Global Ecosystems image
earun2_0g.img.gz byte Eurasia Running Vegetation Lifeforms image
easib2_0g.img.gz byte Eurasia SiB image
easib22_0g.img.gz byte Eurasia SiB2 image
easlcr2_0g.img.gz byte Eurasia Seasonal Land Cover Regions image
eaurbang.img.gz byte Eurasia Digital Chart of the World urban image
eausgs2_0g.img.gz byte Eurasia USGS land use/land cover image

File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/ea   Eurasia
/pub/data/glcc/ea/goode   Goodes Interupted Homolosine Projection
/pub/data/glcc/ea/goode/ndvimon   Monthly NDVI Composites
eaaprndg.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
eamayndg.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
eajunndg.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
eajulndg.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
eaaugndg.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
easepndg.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
eaoctndg.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
eanovndg.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
eadecndg.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
eajanndg.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
eafebndg.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
eamarndg.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/ea   Eurasia
/pub/data/glcc/ea/lamberta   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection (optimized for Asia)
eadoc2_0.txt ascii Eurasia readme text
easlcr2_0.leg ascii Eurasia seasonal land cover regions legend
ealcdbtab2_0.txt ascii Eurasia land cover database table (tab delimited text)
bats2_0.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp2_0.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge2_0.leg ascii Olson Global Ecosystems legend
run2_0.leg ascii Running Vegetation Lifeforms legend
sib2_0.leg ascii SiB legend
sib22_0.leg ascii SiB2 legend
usgs2_0.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
eabats2_0la.img.gz byte Eurasia BATS image
eademla.img.gz 16bit Eurasia DEM image
eaigbp2_0la.img.gz byte Eurasia IGBP image
eaoge2_0la.img.gz byte Eurasia Olson Global Ecosystems image
earun2_0la.img.gz byte Eurasia Running Vegetation Lifeforms image
easib2_0la.img.gz byte Eurasia SiB image
easib22_0la.img.gz byte Eurasia SiB2 image
easlcr2_0la.img.gz byte Eurasia Seasonal Land Cover Regions image
eaurbanla.img.gz byte Eurasia Digital Chart of the World urban image
eausgs2_0la.img.gz byte Eurasia USGS land use/land cover image

File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/ea   Eurasia
/pub/data/glcc/ea/lamberta   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection (optimized for Asia)
/pub/data/glcc/ea/lamberta/ndvimon   Monthly NDVI Composites
eaaprndla.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
eamayndla.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
eajunndla.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
eajulndla.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
eaaugndla.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
easepndla.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
eaoctndla.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
eanovndla.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
eadecndla.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
eajanndla.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
eafebndla.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
eamarndla.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/ea   Eurasia
/pub/data/glcc/ea/lamberte   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection (optimized for Europe)
eadoc2_0.txt ascii Eurasia readme text
easlcr2_0.leg ascii Eurasia seasonal land cover regions legend
ealcdbtab2_0.txt ascii Eurasia land cover database table (tab delimited text)
bats2_0.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp2_0.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge2_0.leg ascii Olson Global Ecosystems legend
run2_0.leg ascii Running Vegetation Lifeforms legend
sib2_0.leg ascii SiB legend
sib22_0.leg ascii SiB2 legend
usgs2_0.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
eabats2_0le.img.gz byte Eurasia BATS image
eademle.img.gz 16bit Eurasia DEM image
eaigbp2_0le.img.gz byte Eurasia IGBP image
eaoge2_0le.img.gz byte Eurasia Olson Global Ecosystems image
earun2_0le.img.gz byte Eurasia Running Vegetation Lifeforms image
easib2_0le.img.gz byte Eurasia SiB image
easib22_0le.img.gz byte Eurasia SiB2 image
easlcr2_0le.img.gz byte Eurasia Seasonal Land Cover Regions image
eaurbanle.img.gz byte Eurasia Digital Chart of the World urban image
eausgs2_0le.img.gz byte Eurasia USGS land use/land cover image

File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/ea   Eurasia
/pub/data/glcc/ea/lamberta   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection (optimized for Asia)
/pub/data/glcc/ea/lamberta/ndvimon   Monthly NDVI Composites
eaaprndle.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
eamayndle.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
eajunndle.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
eajulndle.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
eaaugndle.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
easepndle.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
eaoctndle.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
eanovndle.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
eadecndle.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
eajanndle.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
eafebndle.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
eamarndle.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

4.0 Derived Data Sets

4.1 Eurasia Seasonal Land Cover Regions Legend

Eurasia, v. 2.0

Value Description
1 Transitional Boreal Conifer (Pine and Spruce) Forest
2 Boreal Forest (Spruce, Birch, Pine, Larch)
3 Temperate Alpine Conifer Forest
4 Highland Meadow/Conifer Forest (Fir, Spruce)
5 Boreal Forest (Spruce, Pine)
6 Boreal Forest (Spruce, Fir, Alder)
7 Pine Dominated Forest
8 Boreal Forest (Spruce, Birch, Alder)
9 Conifer Forest (Larch, Fir)
10 Spruce, Pine, and Birch Forest with Cropland
11 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest with Rice Paddies
12 Northern Pine and Fir Forest
13 Pine Forest with Cropland (Maize and Vineyards)
14 Tropical Forest
15 Fragmented Monsoon Tropical Broadleaf Forest
16 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest with Shrubland
17 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest with Grassland
18 Broadleaf Evergreen Monsoon Forest
19 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
20 Boreal Larch, Birch, Spruce Forest
21 Boreal Forest (Larch, Spruce)
22 Boreal Forest (Larch, Birch, Elder)
23 Larch Forest
24 Larch Forest
25 Boreal Forest (Larch/Birch/Aspen)
26 Mixed Boreal Forest (Larch, Birch, Poplar)
27 Montane, Monsoon Deciduous Rain Forest
28 Broadleaf Deciduous Forest (Ash, Elm, Birch, Basswood)
29 Oak Woodland
30 Deciduous Broadleaf Woodland/Shrubland
31 Agriculture and Plantations (Rubber, Coconut)
32 Tropical Fruit Plantations
33 Deciduous Forest (Hornbeam, Beech, Oak) with Crops
34 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
35 Deciduous Monsoon Forest
36 Disturbed Deciduous Monsoon Forest
37 Closed and Open Deciduous Broadleaf Forest with Cropland
38 Montane Deciduous Monsoon Forest
39 Woodland (Oak, Beech, Maple, Pine, Fir)
40 Open Boreal Forest (Larch/Birch)
41 Open Boreal Forest (Larch/Birch)
42 Woodland (Beech, Hornbeam, Oak)
43 Mixed Forest
44 Lowland Larch/Birch/Pine Forest
45 Transitional Boreal Mixed Forest
46 Forested Wetland (Larch, Birch, Pine)
47 Larch Forest/Woodland
48 Northern Boreal Mixed Forest (Spruce, Pine, with Birch, Poplar)
49 Boreal Forest (Pine, Birch) with Marshes and Bogs
50 Larch, Birch, Bogs
51 Boreal Forest (Spruce, Pine, Birch)
52 Birch, Larch, Pine, Spruce
53 Birch Woodland/Marsh
54 Mixed Forest with Grassland
55 Mixed Southern Boreal Woodland (Larch, Pine, Birch, Oak)
56 Mixed Boreal Forest (Birch/Pine)
57 Mixed Boreal Forest (Birch, Spruce, Pine)
58 Forest (Beech, Birch, Cedar Mixed with Pine and Larch)
59 Larch, Birch, Pine Boreal Forest
60 Mixed Forest (Birch, Maple, Poplar, Spruce)
61 Mixed Forest (Pine, Birch)
62 Woodland (Pine, Larch, Oak) with Cropland (Wheat, Grains)
63 Mixed Forest (Larch, Pine, Oak, Aspen)
64 Mixed Forest (Aspen, Beech, Oak, Poplar, Spruce)
65 Mixed Forest
66 Mixed Forest (Larch, Beech, Aspen, Oak)
67 Mixed Pine and Broadleaf Forest
68 Fragmented and Degraded, Open Forest
69 Oak/Pine Mixed Forest with Cropland
70 Mixed Evergreen Forest (Pine, Live Oak)
71 Evergreen Broadleaf and Needleleaf Forest
72 Evergreen Needleleaf and Broadleaf Forest
73 Arctic Heath
74 Sparse Trees, Bogs (Heath, Shrub Tundra)
75 Deciduous Shrubland
76 Boreal Shrubland (Birch, Alder) with Spruce
77 Pine and Evergreen Shrubs
78 Woodland, Shrubland with Cropland (Cotton, Wheat)
79 Temperate Broadleaf Shrubland
80 Dense Sclerophyllous Oak Woodland
81 Alpine Tundra
82 Desert
83 Alpine Semidesert Shrub
84 Sparse, Dwarf Trees, Willows, Bogs
85 Sparsely Vegetated Desert Shrubland
86 Sparsely Vegetated Desert
87 Tundra/Shrubland
88 Alpine Tundra
89 Arctic Shrub Tundra (Birch, Willow)
90 Semi-Arid Grassland/Shrubland
91 Woody Tundra (Dwarf Shrubs/Willows)
92 Semi-Arid Grassland/Shrubland
93 Short Grass and Sparse Shrub
94 Sparse Taiga (Dwarf Trees, Larch)
95 Dwarf Trees (Willows, Shrubs)
96 Woody Tundra/Transitional Taiga (Dwarf Trees)
97 Arid Shrubland
98 Shrubland with Crops
99 Alpine Shrubland
100 Woody Tundra
101 Woody Tundra (Birch/Willow)
102 Sparsely Vegetated Shrubland/Grassland
103 Desert Grassland/Shrubland
104 Tundra/Shortgrass/Cedar, Birch Forest
105 Grassland/Boreal Forest Mosaic
106 Grass and Shrub Mosaic
107 Open Woodland and Grassland
108 Pine/Bamboo and Oak Woodland with Cropland (Grains)
109 Deciduous Woodland/Shrubland with Agriculture
110 Woodland (Pine, Oak, Gum)
111 Deciduous Broadleaf Woodland
112 Oak Woodland/Grassland
113 Deciduous Woodland/Shrubland with Agriculture
114 Grassland with Cropland
115 Sparse Short Grassland
116 Herbaceous Tundra
117 Short Montane Grassland
118 Deciduous Shrubs and Tall Grass
119 Shrubland/Short Grassland
120 Alpine Meadows/Grassland
121 Grassland with Dryland Crops
122 Grassland with Winter Wheat
123 Alpine Shrubland/Grassland
124 Alpine Short Grassland
125 Alpine Grassland/Meadow
126 Grassland, Meadow
127 Short Grassland
128 Short Grassland with Shrubs
129 Alpine Meadow/Grassland
130 Short Grassland
131 Grassland with Cropland
132 Alpine Grassland/Meadow
133 Grassland, Meadow
134 Grassland/Shrubland
135 Grassland
136 Grassland/Meadow with Cropland
137 Alpine Grassland/Meadow
138 Grassland with Pine
139 Alpine Meadow with Coniferous Trees
140 Alpine Meadow
141 Alpine Meadow with Shrubs
142 Sparse Trees, Bogs
143 Wetland/Bog/Deciduous Woody Tundra
144 Lowland Bogs and Transitional Boreal Forest (Woody Tundra, Larch)
145 Blanket Bogs, Heath
146 Grass Wetland/Marsh
147 Mangrove
148 Cropland (Small Grains)
149 Cropland (Small Grains) with Grassland
150 Cropland (Spring Wheat, Small Grains)
151 Cropland (Small Grains) with Grassland
152 Cropland (Cotton, Grains) with Shrubs
153 Cropland (Rice)
154 Cropland (Millet, Wheat, Maize)
155 Irrigated Cropland
156 Dry Cropland (Wheat, Soybeans)
157 Cropland (Spring Wheat, Other Grains)
158 Cropland (Rice)
159 Cropland (Winter Wheat)
160 Cropland (Wheat) with Woodland
161 Cropland (Rice, Cotton)
162 Cropland (Winter Wheat, Small Grains)
163 Irrigated Cropland/Cotton
164 Cropland (Millet, Soybean, Rice)
165 Cropland (Rice, Wheat) with Woodland
166 Cropland (Rice, Grains)
167 Cropland (Grains)/Grassland/Bamboo Mosaic
168 Dryland Cropland (Wheat, Maize, Soybeans)
169 Cropland (Corn, Wheat) with Woodland
170 Cropland (Spring Wheat, Soybeans)
171 Cropland (Small Grains)
172 Cropland (Winter Wheat)
173 Dryland Crops/Orchards/Vineyards
174 Cropland (Rice, Wheat)
175 Mixed Cropland (Small Grains, Corn, Soybeans, Rice) with Woodland
176 Cropland (Grains, Soybeans, Rice, Cotton)
177 Dryland Crops (Millet, Soybeans, Oats, Cotton)
178 Irrigated Cropland (Rice, Wheat)
179 Cropland (Rice)
180 Irrigated Cropland (Cotton, Rice, Sugar Cane)
181 Cropland (Rice)
182 Irrigated Cropland (Double Crop Rice)
183 Cropland (Rice)
184 Cropland (Rice, Wheat)
185 Small Grains (Barley, Wheat) with Grassland
186 Cropland (Small Grains) and Pasture
187 Cropland (Rice, Cotton)
188 Cropland (Corn, Wheat) with Woodland
189 Cropland (Wheat, Orchards)
190 Cropland (Wheat, Barley, Corn)
191 Pasture/Cropland/Orchards
192 Irrigated Crops (Rice)
193 Cropland (Rye, Small Grains) with Mixed Forest
194 Cropland (Small Grains, Sugar Beets, Orchards)/Pasture
195 Irrigated Cropland (Rice, Wheat)
196 Irrigated Crops (Rice)
197 Cropland (Rice)
198 Cropland (Double Crop Rice, Wheat, Grains, Peanuts)
199 Cropland (Double Crop Rice, Wheat) with Deciduous Woodland
200 Pasture/Cropland/Orchards
201 Cropland (Rice) with Woodlands
202 Cropland
203 Pasture/Cropland (Wheat, Barley)
204 Irrigated Cropland (Rice, Wheat)
205 Cropland (Double Crop Rice/Wheat, Cotton)
206 Cropland and Pasture (Wheat, Orchards, Vineyards) with Woodland
207 Cropland/Open Woodland
208 Cropland (Cereals)
209 Cropland/Pasture with Woodland (Oak, Beech)
210 Pasture/Cropland
211 Grassland/Cropland (Small Grains) Mosaic
212 Short Grassland/Oak Woodland/Cropland
213 Woodland/Cropland Mosaic
214 Grassland/Irrigated Cropland
215 Cropland/Woodland Mosaic
216 Cropland (Spring Wheat)/Grassland Mosaic
217 Cropland (Spring Wheat, Barley)/Birch Woodland Mosaic
218 Grassland/Cropland (Small Grains) Mosaic
219 Cropland (Grains)/Grassland/Bamboo Mosaic
220 Cropland/Shrubland Mosaic
221 Cropland/Woodland Mosaic
222 Grassland/Cropland (Corn, Wheat) Mosaic
223 Cropland/Grassland Mosaic
224 Cropland (Rice, Cotton)/Woodland Mosaic
225 Cropland (Corn, Barley)/Grassland Mosaic
226 Cropland (Small Grains) and Woodland Mosaic
227 Cropland (Wheat)/Grassland Mosaic
228 Cropland (Small Grains)/Mixed Forest Mosaic
229 Cropland, Orchards, Vineyards/Shrub Mosaic
230 Cropland (Wheat, Cotton)/Meadows Mosaic
231 Cropland (Small Grains)/Woodland Mosaic
232 Deciduous Broadleaf Woodland/Dry Cropland Mosaic
233 Mixed Forest/Cropland (Winter Wheat) Mosaic
234 Dryland Crops (Rice)/Grassland/Shrubland Mosaic
235 Shrubland/Cropland Mosaic
236 Woodland/Cropland/Pasture Mosaic
237 Woodland/Cropland/Grassland Mosaic
238 Oak Woodland/Cropland (Small Grains, Orchards)/Pasture
239 Cropland (Rice)/Grassland
240 Cropland/Shrubland Mosaic
241 Cropland (Irrigated)/Conifer Forest (Pine, Fir, Bamboo)
242 Grassland Meadow/Cereal Crops/Hay with Oak Woodland
243 Cropland (Rice)/Forest Mosaic
244 Fragmented Forest/Shifting Agriculture
245 Grassland/Woodland/Cropland Mosaic
246 Snow and Ice
247 Barren Polar Desert
248 Barren
249 Arctic Tundra
250 Sparsely Vegetated
251 Lowland Barren/Sparse Vegetation
252 Inland Water
253 Ocean

4.2 Global Ecosystems Legend

Value Description
1 Urban
2 Low Sparse Grassland
3 Coniferous Forest
4 Deciduous Conifer Forest
5 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
6 Evergreen Broadleaf Forests
7 Tall Grasses and Shrubs
8 Bare Desert
9 Upland Tundra
10 Irrigated Grassland
11 Semi Desert
12 Glacier Ice
13 Wooded Wet Swamp
14 Inland Water
15 Sea Water
16 Shrub Evergreen
17 Shrub Deciduous
18 Mixed Forest and Field
19 Evergreen Forest and Fields
20 Cool Rain Forest
21 Conifer Boreal Forest
22 Cool Conifer Forest
23 Cool Mixed Forest
24 Mixed Forest
25 Cool Broadleaf Forest
26 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
27 Conifer Forest
28 Montane Tropical Forests
29 Seasonal Tropical Forest
30 Cool Crops and Towns
31 Crops and Town
32 Dry Tropical Woods
33 Tropical Rainforest
34 Tropical Degraded Forest
35 Corn and Beans Cropland
36 Rice Paddy and Field
37 Hot Irrigated Cropland
38 Cool Irrigated Cropland
39 Cold Irrigated Cropland
40 Cool Grasses and Shrubs
41 Hot and Mild Grasses and Shrubs
42 Cold Grassland
43 Savanna (Woods)
44 Mire, Bog, Fen
45 Marsh Wetland
46 Mediterranean Scrub
47 Dry Woody Scrub
48 Dry Evergreen Woods
49 Volcanic Rock
50 Sand Desert
51 Semi Desert Shrubs
52 Semi Desert Sage
53 Barren Tundra
54 Cool Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forests
55 Cool Fields and Woods
56 Forest and Field
57 Cool Forest and Field
58 Fields and Woody Savanna
59 Succulent and Thorn Scrub
60 Small Leaf Mixed Woods
61 Deciduous and Mixed Boreal Forest
62 Narrow Conifers
63 Wooded Tundra
64 Heath Scrub
65 Coastal Wetland, NW
66 Coastal Wetland, NE
67 Coastal Wetland, SE
68 Coastal Wetland, SW
69 Polar and Alpine Desert
70 Glacier Rock
71 Salt Playas
72 Mangrove
73 Water and Island Fringe
74 Land, Water, and Shore
75 Land and Water, Rivers
76 Crop and Water Mixtures
77 Southern Hemisphere Conifers
78 Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forest
79 Wet Sclerophylic Forest
80 Coastline Fringe
81 Beaches and Dunes
82 Sparse Dunes and Ridges
83 Bare Coastal Dunes
84 Residual Dunes and Beaches
85 Compound Coastlines
86 Rocky Cliffs and Slopes
87 Sandy Grassland and Shrubs
88 Bamboo
89 Moist Eucalyptus
90 Rain Green Tropical Forest
91 Woody Savanna
92 Broadleaf Crops
93 Grass Crops
94 Crops, Grass, Shrubs
95 Evergreen Tree Crop
96 Deciduous Tree Crop

4.3 IGBP Land Cover Legend

Value Description
1 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
2 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
3 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
4 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
5 Mixed Forest
6 Closed Shrublands
7 Open Shrublands
8 Woody Savannas
9 Savannas
10 Grasslands
11 Permanent Wetlands
12 Croplands
13 Urban and Built-Up
14 Cropland/Natural Vegetation Mosaic
15 Snow and Ice
16 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
17 Water Bodies

4.4 USGS Land Use/Land Cover System Legend (Modified Level 2)

Value Code Description
1 100 Urban and Built-Up Land
2 211 Dryland Cropland and Pasture
3 212 Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
4 213 Mixed Dryland/Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
5 280 Cropland/Grassland Mosaic
6 290 Cropland/Woodland Mosaic
7 311 Grassland
8 321 Shrubland
9 330 Mixed Shrubland/Grassland
10 332 Savanna
11 411 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
12 412 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
13 421 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
14 422 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
15 430 Mixed Forest
16 500 Water Bodies
17 620 Herbaceous Wetland
18 610 Wooded Wetland
19 770 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
20 820 Herbaceous Tundra
21 810 Wooded Tundra
22 850 Mixed Tundra
23 830 Bare Ground Tundra
24 900 Snow or Ice
4.5 Simple Biosphere Model Legend
Value Description
1 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees
2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees
3 Deciduous and Evergreen Trees
4 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees
5 Deciduous Needleleaf Trees
6 Ground Cover with Trees and Shrubs
7 Groundcover Only
8 Broadleaf Shrubs with Perennial Ground Cover
9 Broadleaf Shrubs with Bare Soil
10 Groundcover with Dwarf Trees and Shrubs
11 Bare Soil
12 Agriculture or C3 Grassland
17 Persistent Wetland
18 Dry Coastal Complexes
19 Water
20 Ice Cap and Glacier

4.6 Simple Biosphere 2 Model Legend

Value Description
1 Broadleaf Evergreen Trees
2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees
3 Broadleaf and Needleleaf Trees
4 Needleleaf Evergreen Trees
5 Needleleaf Deciduous Trees
6 Short Vegetation/C4 Grassland
7 Shrubs with Bare Soil
8 Dwarf Trees and Shrubs
9 Agriculture or C3 Grassland
10 Water, Wetlands
11 Ice/Snow

4.7 Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme Legend

Value Description
1 Crops, Mixed Farming
2 Short Grass
3 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees
4 Deciduous Needleleaf Tree
5 Deciduous Broadleaf Trees
6 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees
7 Tall Grass
8 Desert
9 Tundra
10 Irrigated Crops
11 Semidesert
12 Ice Caps and Glaciers
13 Bogs and Marshes
14 Inland Water
15 Ocean
16 Evergreen Shrubs
17 Deciduous Shrubs
18 Mixed Forest
19 Forest/Field Mosaic
20 Water and Land Mixtures

4.8 Running Vegetation Lifeforms Legend

Value Description
1 Evergreen Needleleaf Vegetation
2 Evergreen Broadleaf Vegetation
3 Deciduous Needleleaf Vegetation
4 Deciduous Broadleaf Vegetation
5 Annual Broadleaf Vegetation
6 Annual Grass Vegetation
7 Non-vegetated Land
8 Water Bodies

5.0 Information on Version 2.0

The first version of the global land cover database was completed and released to the public in November, 1997.  We applied the feedback we received from the users of this database (Brown and others, 1999) and broad lessons learned from the validation exercise of the IGBP DISCover land cover data (Scepan, 1999; Muchoney and others, 1999) to the development of this revised version of the database.  Version 2.0 of the Eurasia land cover database contains updated land cover classes and revised labels.  Users can identify the revised images and documentation by observing  "2.0" or "2_0" in file names (for example, eaigbp2_0g.img).  The previous version (1.2) of the land cover database will not be stored on our anonymous ftp site.  Links to the previous version (1.2) of the land cover database are found on glcc_version1.html. Please send any questions to our Land Cover Applications Center ( lcac@usgs.gov ).

We have provided the specific changes to the Eurasia land cover database in the following ascii text file, ealcdbtab2_0.txt .  The file contains 42 fields (columns) and the data are of variable width with tabs as field delimiters.  The first record (row) of the file corresponds to the field titles.  The following records in the file are indexed by the second field to the Eurasia Seasonal Land Cover Regions (Version 2.0).  The field entitled "Update" contains information specific to the action taken in order to revise the particular Seasonal Land Cover Region (for example, the class was split, merged with another region, or relabeled).

6.0 References

Anderson, J.R., Hardy, E.E., Roach J.T., and Witmer R.E., 1976, A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 28 p.

Belward, A.S., ed., 1996, The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set (DISCover)-proposal and implementation plans: IGBP-DIS Working Paper No. 13, Toulouse, France, 61 p.

Brown, J.F., Loveland, T.R., Ohlen, D.O., Zhu, Z., 1999. The Global Land-Cover Characteristics Database: The Users' Perspective. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1,069-1,074.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., Kennedy, P.J., and Wilson, M.F., 1986, Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model: NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN275+STR, Boulder, CO. 69 p.

Loveland, T.R., Zhu, Z., Ohlen, D.O., Brown, J.F., Reed, B.C., and Yang, L., 1999. An Analysis of the IGBP Global Land-Cover Characterization Process. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1021-1032.

Muchoney, D., Strahler, A., Hodges, J., and LoCastro, J., 1999. The IGBP DISCover Confidence Sites and the System for Terrestrial Ecosystem Parameterization: Tools for Validating Global Land-Cover Data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1061-1067.

Olson, J.S., 1994a, Global ecosystem framework-definitions: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 37 p.

_____ 1994b, Global ecosystem framework-translation strategy: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 39 p.

Running, S.W., Loveland, T.R., and Pierce, L.L., 1994. A Vegetation Classification Logic Based on Remote Sensing for Use in Global Biogeochemical Models, Ambio , v. 23, n. 1, p. 77-81.

Scepan, J., 1999. Thematic Validation of High-Resolution Global Land-Cover Data Sets, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1051-1060.

Sellers, P.J., Mintz, Y., Sud, Y.C., and Dalcher A., 1986, A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models: Journal of Atmospheric Science , v. 43, p. 505-531.

Sellers, P.J., Randall, D.A., Collatz, G.J., Berry, J.A., Field, C.B., Dazlich, D.A., Zhang, C., Collelo, G.D., and Bounoua, L., 1996, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs - Part I-model formulation: Journal of Climate , v. 9, p. 676-705.

Steinwand, D.R., 1994, Mapping raster imagery to the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection: International Journal of Remote Sensing , v. 15, no. 17, p. 3,463-3,472.

Steinwand, D.R., Hutchinson, J.A., and Snyder, J.P. ,1995, Map projections for global and continental data sets and an analysis of pixel distortion caused by reprojection: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 61, p. 1,487-1,497.
 

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