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USGS - science for a changing world

Global Land Cover Characterization

Eurasia Land Cover Characteristics Data Base Version 1.2

PLEASE NOTE: This is the Version 1.2 release of the Eurasia land cover characteristics data base. It has not yet been validated and is subject to review. Following validation, the data base will be modified based on the lessons learned. Comments from users of this data set are encouraged and will be considered for incorporation in later versions. Please email comments to:

lcac@edcmail.cr.usgs.gov


Table of Contents

1.0 Data Description

The Eurasia land cover data base is one portion of a global land cover characteristics data base that is being developed on a continent-by-continent basis. All continents in the global data base share the same map projections (Interrupted Goode Homolosine and Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area), have 1-km nominal spatial resolution, and are based on 1-km AVHRR data spanning April 1992 through March 1993. Each continental data base has unique elements that are based on the salient geographic aspects of the specific continent. In addition, a core set of derived thematic maps produced through the aggregation of seasonal land cover regions are included in each continental data base. These are:

The legends for each of these derived data sets can be found in Section 4.2 - 4.7.

For a description of the methodology for the global data base, see the global readme file found under the LP DAAC home page (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/glcc.php).

The Eurasia land cover characteristics data are in a flat, headerless raster format. The pixel values correspond to class numbers defined in the appropriate land cover classification scheme legend. Data are distributed as compressed and uncompressed single-band images. The files can be obtained either by anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp) or downloaded from the LP Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) World Wide Web site: (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/ea_int.php). The instructions for accessing these files are contained in the following two sections.

1.1 Anonymous FTP for PC or UNIX Users

  1. Contact the FTP server. At your command prompt, use the command: ftp edcftp.cr.usgs.gov
  2. Login as an anonymous user and use your email address as the password.
  3. Change to the directory pub/data/glcc
  4. Change to the Eurasia subdirectory, ea
  5. Change to the directory for the projection of interest (i.e., goode for Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection, lamberte for Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection optimized for Europe, or lamberta for Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection optimized for Asia).
  6. Locate the file of interest (a complete file listing is located in section 3.0 of this readme). The image files were compressed using the GNU 'gzip' software and can be identified by the ".gz" file extension. These files must be uncompressed before use with the 'gunzip' utility, a part of the gzip software. Directions for acquiring the gzip software from GNU can be found on the WWW on the GNU home page (http://www.gnu.org/). If you do not have access to gzip, the ftp server can uncompress the files as they are retrieved.
  7. To FTP compressed files:
  8. To FTP uncompressed files:

1.2 Downloading from the World Wide Web Site

From the Eurasia Land Cover page, select either data in Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection, data in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection optimized for Europe, or data in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection optimized for Asia. The selection will link to a page that contains links to all documentation files and the image files (both compressed and uncompressed). NOTE: World Wide Web browsers can vary in how the files will be downloaded. On PCs, some browsers will allow a user to interactively select the location where the file will be saved and to edit the file name. However, on certain browsers files may be automatically downloaded to a default storage location on the local system.

  1. Select either button, compressed or uncompressed, for the file of interest.
  2. A pop-up screen may appear, showing information on the download procedure. At this point, choose the directory in which to save the file.
  3. For compressed files, the .gz extension must be added to the filename before downloading. However, if the browser will not accept adding an extension, continue with the download, and then rename the file with the .gz extension when the download is complete.
  4. For uncompressed files, leave the .gz extension off. If a pop-up screen shows the filename with a .gz extension either edit the filename, or proceed with the download and rename the file without the extension after the procedure is complete.

2.0 Geometric Characteristics

The Eurasia data base is available in three different map projections: the Interrupted Goode Homolosine, the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area optimized for Europe, and the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area optimized for Asia (see Steinwand, 1994, and Steinwand and others, 1995, for a complete description of these projections).

2.1 Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection for the Eurasia land cover characteristics data set are 8,570 lines (rows) and 13,800 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 118 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Interrupted Goode Homolosine

2.2 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters

Because the Eurasia land mass covers an extensive range of longitudes, projecting the entire data set into an equal area projection results in extreme angular distortion for areas far from the projection's longitude of origin. Rather than reprojecting the data using one projection with a central meridian in the center of the Eurasia land mass, we have elected to use two sets of projection parameters for the Eurasia data base, one optimized for Europe and one optimized for Asia.

2.2.1 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters (optimized for Europe)

The data dimensions of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection for the Eurasia land cover characteristics data set optimized for Europe are 13,000 lines (rows) and 13,000 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 169 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

2.2.2 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters (optimized for Asia)

The data dimensions of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection for the Eurasia land cover characteristics data set optimized for Asia are 12,000 lines (rows) and 13,000 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 156 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters:

Projection Type: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

3.0 File Listing

FILE (OR DIRECTORY)	DATA		DESCRIPTION
			TYPE

/pub/data/glcc/ea                                                                          Eurasia

/pub/data/glcc/ea/goode                                                               Goode's Interrupted Homolosine Projection

eadoc1_2.txt                                          ascii                                  Eurasia readme text
easlcr1_2.leg                                          ascii                                  Eurasia Seasonal land cover regions legend
bats.leg                                                  ascii                                   BATS legend
igbp.leg                                                  ascii                                   IGBP legend
oge.leg                                                   ascii                                   Global Ecosystems legend
sib.leg                                                    ascii                                    SIB legend
sib2.leg                                                  ascii                                    SIB2 legend
usgs1_2.leg                                           ascii                                    USGS land use/land cover legend
eabats1_2g.img.gz                                 byte                                    BATS image
eademg.img.gz                                       I*2                                     DEM image
eaigbp1_2g.img.gz                                 byte                                    IGBP image
eaoge1_2g.img.gz                                  byte                                    Global Ecosystems image
easib1_2g.img.gz                                   byte                                     SIB image
easib21_2g.img.gz                                 byte                                     SIB2 image
easlcr1_2g.img.gz                                  byte                                     Seasonal land cover regions image
eaurbang.img.gz                                     byte                                     Digital Chart of the World urban image
eausgs1_2g.img.gz                                 byte                                     USGS land use/land cover image

/pub/data/glcc/ea/goode/ndvimon                                                   Monthly NDVI Composite Images

eaaprndg.img.gz                                      byte                                      April, 1992 NDVI image
eamayndg.img.gz                                     byte                                      May, 1992 NDVI image
eajunndg.img.gz                                       byte                                      June, 1992 NDVI image
eajulndg.img.gz                                        byte                                      July, 1992 NDVI image
eaaugndg.img.gz                                      byte                                      August, 1992 NDVI image
easepndg.img.gz                                      byte                                      September, 1992 NDVI image
eaoctndg.img.gz                                       byte                                      October, 1992 NDVI image
eanovndg.img.gz                                      byte                                      November, 1992 NDVI image
eadecndg.img.gz                                      byte                                      December, 1992 NDVI image
eajanndg.img.gz                                       byte                                      January, 1993 NDVI image
eafebndg.img.gz                                       byte                                      February, 1993 NDVI image
eamarndg.img.gz                                      byte                                      March, 1993 NDVI image

/pub/data/glcc/ea/lamberta                                                                Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection (optimized for Asia)

eadoc1_2.txt                                           ascii                                       Eurasia readme text
easlcr1_2.leg                                           ascii                                       Eurasia seasonal land cover regions legend
bats.leg                                                   ascii                                       BATS legend
igbp.leg                                                   ascii                                       IGBP legend
oge.leg                                                    ascii                                       Global Ecosystems legend
sib.leg                                                     ascii                                       SIB legend
sib2.leg                                                   ascii                                       SIB2 legend
usgs1_2.leg                                             ascii                                       USGS land use/land cover legend
eabats1_2la.img.gz                                  byte                                       BATS image
eademl.img.gz                                          I*2                                        DEM image
eaigbp1_2la.img.gz                                  byte                                       IGBP image
eaoge1_2la.img.gz                                   byte                                       Global Ecosystems image
easib1_2la.img.gz                                    byte                                       SIB image
easib21_2la.img.gz                                  byte                                       SIB2 image
easlcr1_2la.img.gz                                   byte                                       Seasonal land cover regions image
eaurbanla.img.gz                                      byte                                       DCW urban image
eausgs1_2la.img.gz                                  byte                                       USGS land use/land cover image

/pub/data/glcc/ea/lamberta/ndvimon                                                  Monthly NDVI Composite Images

eaaprndla.img.gz                                      byte                                       April, 1992 NDVI image
eamayndla.img.gz                                     byte                                       May, 1992 NDVI image
eajunndla.img.gz                                       byte                                       June, 1992 NDVI image
eajulndla.img.gz                                        byte                                       July, 1992 NDVI image
eaaugndla.img.gz                                      byte                                       August, 1992 NDVI image
easepndla.img.gz                                      byte                                       September, 1992 NDVI image
eaoctndla.img.gz                                       byte                                      October, 1992 NDVI image
eanovndla.img.gz                                      byte                                      November, 1992 NDVI image
eadecndla.img.gz                                      byte                                      December, 1992 NDVI image
eajanndla.img.gz                                       byte                                      January, 1993 NDVI image
eafebndla.img.gz                                       byte                                      February, 1993 NDVI image
eamarndla.img.gz                                      byte                                      March, 1993 NDVI image

/pub/data/glcc/ea/lamberte                                                                 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection (optimized for Europe)

eadoc1_2.txt                                            ascii                                      Eurasia readme text
easlcr1_2.leg                                            ascii                                      Eurasia seasonal land cover regions legend
bats.leg                                                    ascii                                       BATS legend
igbp.leg                                                    ascii                                       IGBP legend
oge.leg                                                     ascii                                      Global Ecosystems legend
sib.leg                                                      ascii                                       SIB legend
sib2.leg                                                    ascii                                       SIB2 legend
usgs1_2.leg                                              ascii                                       USGS land use/land cover legend
eabats1_2le.img.gz                                   byte                                       BATS image
eademl.img.gz                                           I*2                                        DEM image
eaigbp1_2le.img.gz                                   byte                                       IGBP image
eaoge1_2le.img.gz                                    byte                                       Global Ecosystems image
easib1_2le.img.gz                                     byte                                       SIB image
easib21_2le.img.gz                                   byte                                       SIB2 image
easlcr1_2le.img.gz                                    byte                                       Seasonal land cover regions image
eaurbanle.img.gz                                       byte                                       DCW urban image
eausgs1_2le.img.gz                                   byte                                       USGS land use/land cover image

/pub/data/glcc/ea/lamberte/ndvimon                                                  Monthly NDVI Composite Images

eaaprndle.img.gz                                      byte                                      April, 1992 NDVI image
eamayndle.img.gz                                     byte                                      May, 1992 NDVI image
eajunndle.img.gz                                       byte                                      June, 1992 NDVI image
eajulndle.img.gz                                        byte                                      July, 1992 NDVI image
eaaugndle.img.gz                                      byte                                      August, 1992 NDVI image
easepndle.img.gz                                      byte                                      September, 1992 NDVI image
eaoctndle.img.gz                                       byte                                     October, 1992 NDVI image
eanovndle.img.gz                                      byte                                     November, 1992 NDVI image
eadecndle.img.gz                                      byte                                     December, 1992 NDVI image
eajanndle.img.gz                                       byte                                     January, 1993 NDVI image
eafebndle.img.gz                                       byte                                     February, 1993 NDVI image
eamarndle.img.gz                                      byte                                     March, 1993 NDVI image

4.0 Derived Data Sets

4.1 Eurasia Seasonal Land Cover Regions Legend

Eurasia, v. 1.2

Value Description

1 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS)

2 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS) WITH GRASSLAND

3 SPRING WHEAT/SMALL GRAINS

4 SMALL GRAINS WITH GRASSLAND

5 COTTON, GRAINS WITH SHRUBS

6 MILLET, WHEAT, MAIZE

7 DRY CROPLAND (WHEAT & SOYBEANS)

8 CROPLAND (SPRING WHEAT AND OTHER GRAINS)

9 WINTER WHEAT

10 WHEAT WITH WOODLAND

11 WINTER WHEAT, SMALL GRAINS

12 MILLET, SOYBEAN, RICE

13 CROPLAND (RICE/WHEAT)

14 CROPLAND, GRAINS

15 DRYLAND CROPS, WHEAT, MAIZE, SOYBEANS

16 CORN/WHEAT

17 CROPLAND (SPRING WHEAT, SOYBEANS)

18 SMALL GRAINS

19 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS)

20 WINTER WHEAT

21 DRYLAND CROPS/ORCHARDS/VINEYARDS

22 MIXED CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS, CORN, SOYBEANS, RICE) WITH WOODLAND

23 GRAINS, SOYBEANS, RICE, COTTON

24 DRYLAND CROPS (MILLET, SOYBEANS, OATS, COTTON)

25 RICE/WHEAT

26 SMALL GRAINS (BARLEY, WHEAT) WITH GRASSLAND

27 CROPLAND (SUGAR CANE, COTTON, WHEAT)

28 CROPLAND (CORN, WHEAT) WITH WOODLAND

29 CROPLAND (VINEYARDS/ORCHARDS)

30 CROPLAND (RYE, SMALL GRAINS) WITH MIXED FOREST

31 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS, SUGAR BEETS, ORCHARDS)/PASTURE

32 PASTURE/WHEAT/ORCHARDS, VINEYARDS WITH WOODLAND

33 SHIFTING AGRICULTURE, WHEAT/CORN

34 PASTURE/WHEAT/ORCHARDS, VINEYARDS WITH WOODLAND

35 SHIFTING AGRICULTURE/PASTURE/RUBBER, COCONUT

36 TROPICAL FRUIT PLANTATIONS

37 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS, FRUITS)

38 RICE

39 IRRIGATED CROPLAND

40 RICE

41 RICE, COTTON

42 IRRIGATED CROPLAND/COTTON

43 RICE, GRAINS

44 RICE AND WHEAT

45 IRRIGATED CROPLAND (RICE, WHEAT)

46 RICE, CROPLAND

47 IRRIGATED CROPLAND (COTTON, RICE, SUGAR CANE)

48 CROPLAND (RICE)

49 IRRIGATED CROPLAND (DOUBLE-CROP RICE)

50 RICE

51 IRRIGATED AND MIXED CROPLAND (RICE, SUGAR CANE, COTTON)

52 IRRIGATED CROPS (RICE)

53 IRRIGATED CROPLAND (RICE, WHEAT)

54 IRRIGATED CROPS (RICE)

55 CROPLAND (RICE) SHIFTING AGRICULTURE

56 DOUBLE CROP RICE, WHEAT, GRAINS, PEANUTS

57 DOUBLE CROP RICE, WHEAT WITH DECIDUOUS WOODLAND

58 CROPLAND (RICE) WITH WOODLANDS

59 IRRIGATED CROPLAND (RICE, WHEAT)

60 DOUBLE CROP RICE/WHEAT, COTTON

61 SHIFTING AGRICULTURE (RICE, ORCHARDS)

62 SHORT GRASSLAND/OAK WOODLAND/CROPLAND

63 WOODLAND/CROPLAND

64 CROPLAND/WOODLAND

65 SPRING WHEAT, BARLEY/BIRCH WOODLAND

66 CROPLAND/SHRUBLAND MOSAIC

67 CROPLAND/WOODLAND

68 RICE AND COTTON/WOODLAND MOSAIC

69 PINE, BIRCH FOREST/CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS) MOSAIC

70 CROPLAND, ORCHARDS, VINEYARDS/SHRUB MOSAIC

71 CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS)/WOODLAND MOSAIC

72 DECIDUOUS BROADLEAF WOODLAND/DRY CROPLAND MOSAIC

73 WINTER WHEAT/MIXED FOREST MOSAIC

74 SMALL GRAINS/PASTURE/WOODLAND MOSAIC

75 BARLEY, WHEAT, RYE/MEADOW/WOODLAND (LARCH, FIR)

76 WOODLAND (PINE/OAK)/CROPLAND (WHEAT, ORCHARDS, VINEYARDS)

77 WOODLAND (PINE, BIRCH)/CROPLAND

78 CROPLAND (WHEAT, BARLEY, CORN)/WOODLAND MOSAIC

79 WOODLAND/CROPLAND/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

80 OAK WOODLAND/CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS, ORCHARDS)/PASTURE

81 DECIDUOUS WOODLAND/CROPLAND (SOYBEANS, WHEAT) MOSAIC

82 WOODLAND (OAK, BIRCH, BEECH, ASH)/CROPLAND

83 PASTURE/CROPLAND (WHEAT, BARLEY)/DECIDUOUS FOREST

84 PINE, FIR, BAMBOO/CROPLAND (IRRIGATED)

85 DECIDUOUS BROADLEAF WOODLAND/CROPLAND MOSAIC

86 RICE, SHIFTING AGRICULTURE/FOREST MOSAIC

87 FRAGMENTED FOREST/SHIFTING AGRICULTURE

88 CROPLAND (CEREALS)/WOODLAND (BEECH, HORNBEAM, OAK) MOSAIC

89 CROPLAND/PASTURE WITH WOODLAND (OAK, BEECH)

90 WOODLAND (OAK, BEECH, MAPLE, PINE, FIR)/CROPLAND/GRASSLAND

91 FRAGMENTED FOREST/SHIFTING AGRICULTURE/SAVANNA

92 PASTURE/CROPLAND (ORCHARDS, VINEYARDS)/DECIDUOUS WOODLAND

93 GRASSLAND/CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS) MOSAIC

94 GRASSLAND/IRRIGATED CROPLAND

95 SPRING WHEAT/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

96 GRASSLAND/CROPLAND (SMALL GRAINS) MOSAIC

97 CROPLAND (GRAINS)/GRASSLAND/BAMBOO MOSAIC

98 GRASSLAND/CROPLAND (CORN, WHEAT)

99 CROPLAND/GRASSLAND

100 CORN, BARLEY/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

101 WHEAT AND GRASSLAND MOSAIC

102 CROPLAND (WHEAT, COTTON)/MEADOWS

103 DRYLAND CROPS (RICE)/GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND MOSAIC

104 GRASSLAND/WOODLAND/CROPLAND MOSAIC

105 CROPLAND/PASTURE

106 CROPLAND (RICE)/GRASSLAND

107 GRASSLAND MEADOW/CEREAL CROPS/HAY WITH OAK WOODLAND

108 GRASSLAND/WOODLAND/CROPLAND MOSAIC

109 GRASSLAND WITH CROPLAND

110 SPARSE SHORT GRASSLAND

111 SHORT MONTANE GRASSLAND

112 SHRUBLAND/SHORT GRASSLAND

113 ALPINE MEADOWS/GRASSLAND

114 GRASSLAND WITH DRYLAND CROPS

115 GRASSLAND WITH WINTER WHEAT

116 ALPINE SHORT GRASSLAND

117 ALPINE GRASSLAND/MEADOW

118 GRASSLAND/MEADOW

119 SHORT GRASSLAND

120 SHORT GRASSLAND WITH SHRUBS

121 ALPINE MEADOW/GRASSLAND

122 SHORT GRASSLAND

123 GRASSLAND WITH CROPLAND

124 ALPINE GRASSLAND/MEADOW

125 GRASSLAND, MEADOW

126 GRASSLAND

127 GRASSLAND/MEADOW WITH CROPLAND

128 ALPINE GRASSLAND/MEADOW

129 GRASSLAND WITH PINE

130 ALPINE MEADOW WITH CONIFEROUS TREES

131 ALPINE MEADOW

132 ALPINE MEADOW WITH SHRUBS

133 SEMI-ARID GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND

134 SEMI-ARID GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND

135 DECIDUOUS SHRUBS AND TALL GRASS

136 ALPINE SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND

137 SPARSELY VEGETATED SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND

138 DESERT GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND

139 GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND

140 ALPINE SEMIDESERT SHRUB

141 ARID SHRUBLAND

142 SHRUBLAND WITH CROPS

143 ALPINE SHRUBLAND

144 DECIDUOUS SHRUBLAND

145 DECIDUOUS SHRUBLAND

146 BOREAL SHRUBLAND (BIRCH, ALDER) WITH SPRUCE

147 PINE AND EVERGREEN SHRUBS

148 DECIDUOUS BROADLEAF WOODLAND/SHRUBLAND

149 TEMPERATE BROADLEAF SHRUBLAND

150 DENSE SCLEROPHYLLOUS OAK WOODLAND

151 OAK WOODLAND/GRASSLAND

152 GRASS/WOODLAND MOSAIC

153 WOODLAND (PINE, BIRCH, CEDAR) WITH GRASSLANDS

154 PINE/BAMBOO AND OAK WOODLAND WITH CROPLAND (GRAINS)

155 OAK WOODLAND

156 WOODLAND (PINE, OAK, GUM)

157 GRASSLAND/OAK WOODLAND WITH CROP

158 BIRCH WOODLAND WITH PINE

159 BOREAL FOREST (SPRUCE, PINE, BIRCH)

160 BIRCH WOODLAND/MARSH

161 MONTANE, MONSOON DECIDUOUS RAIN FOREST

162 BROADLEAF DECIDUOUS (ASH, ELM, BIRCH, BASSWOOD)

163 DECIDUOUS BROADLEAF FOREST

164 DECIDUOUS FOREST (HORNBEAM, BEECH, OAK) WITH CROPS

165 OPEN DECIDUOUS MONSOON FOREST

166 DISTURBED DECIDUOUS MONSOON FOREST

167 MONTANE DECIDUOUS MONSOON FOREST

168 BOREAL FOREST (LARCH, BIRCH, ELDER)

169 BOREAL FOREST (LARCH, SPRUCE)

170 LARCH FOREST

171 LARCH FOREST

172 BOREAL FOREST (LARCH/BIRCH/ASPEN)

173 MIXED BOREAL FOREST (LARCH, BIRCH, POPLAR)

174 TROPICAL FOREST

175 FRAGMENTED MONSOON TROPICAL BROADLEAF FOREST

176 EVERGREEN BROADLEAF FOREST WITH SHRUBLAND

177 EVERGREEN BROADLEAF FOREST WITH GRASSLAND

178 BROADLEAF EVERGREEN MONSOON FOREST

179 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

180 TRANSITIONAL PINE AND CONIFER FORESTS

181 BOREAL FOREST (SPRUCE, BIRCH, PINE, LARCH)

182 SPRUCE, PINE, FIR FOREST

183 NORTHERN BOREAL MIXED FOREST (SPRUCE, PINE, WITH BIRCH,

POPLAR)

184 BIRCH, SPRUCE, PINE

185 CONIFEROUS FOREST (SPRUCE)

186 MEADOW/MIXED FOREST (FIR, SPRUCE, BEECH) MOSAIC

187 BOREAL FOREST (SPRUCE, PINE)

188 SPRUCE, ALDER, FIR FOREST

189 PINE DOMINATED FOREST

190 BOREAL FOREST (SPRUCE, BIRCH, ALDER)

191 SPRUCE, PINE, AND BIRCH FOREST WITH CROPLAND

192 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF FOREST WITH RICE PADDIES

193 PINE AND FIR FOREST

194 PINE FOREST WITH CROPLAND (MAIZE AND VINEYARDS)

195 LOWLAND LARCH/BIRCH/PINE FOREST

196 BOREAL LARCH, BIRCH, SPRUCE FOREST

197 LARCH FOREST/WOODLAND

198 BOREAL FOREST (PINE, BIRCH) WITH MARSHES AND BOGS

199 LARCH, BIRCH, BOGS

200 BIRCH, LARCH, PINE, SPRUCE

201 MIXED SOUTHERN BOREAL WOODLAND (LARCH, PINE, BIRCH, OAK)

202 MIXED BOREAL FOREST (BIRCH/PINE)

203 MIXED BOREAL FORES (BIRCH, SPRUCE, PINE)

204 FOREST (BEECH, BIRCH, CEDAR MIXED WITH PINE AND LARCH)

205 LARCH, BIRCH, PINE BOREAL FOREST

206 MIXED FOREST (BIRCH, MAPLE, POPLAR, SPRUCE)

207 MIXED FOREST (LARCH, PINE, OAK, ASPEN)

208 MIXED FOREST (ASPEN, BEECH, OAK, POPLAR, SPRUCE)

209 MIXED FOREST (LARCH, BEECH, ASPEN, OAK)

210 MIXED PINE AND BROADLEAF FOREST

211 OAK/PINE MIXED FOREST WITH CROPLAND

212 MIXED EVERGREEN FOREST (PINE, LIVE OAK)

213 EVERGREEN BROADLEAF AND NEEDLELEAF FOREST

214 EVERGREEN NEEDLELEAF AND BROADLEAF FOREST

215 OPEN BOREAL FOREST (LARCH/BIRCH)

216 OPEN BOREAL FOREST (LARCH/BIRCH)

217 LARCH/BIRCH AND GRASSLAND SAVANNA

218 DECIDUOUS WOODLAND/SHRUBLAND WITH SHIFTING AGRICULTURE

219 DECIDUOUS WOODLAND/SHRUBLAND WITH SHIFTING AGRICULTURE

220 GRASSLAND AND BOREAL FOREST MOSAIC

221 WOODLAND (PINE, LARCH, OAK) WITH CROPLAND (WHEAT, GRAINS)

222 SPARSE TREES, BOGS

223 WETLAND/BOG/DECIDUOUS WOODY TUNDRA

224 LOWLAND BOGS AND TRANSITIONAL BOREAL FOREST (WOODY TUNDRA, LARCH)

225 FORESTED WETLAND (LARCH, BIRCH, PINE)

226 GRASS WETLAND/MARSH

227 BLANKET BOGS, HEATH

228 MANGROVE

229 ALPINE TUNDRA

230 ARCTIC TUNDRA

231 SPARSE, DWARF TREES, WILLOWS, BOGS

232 TUNDRA/SHRUBLAND

233 ARCTIC HEATH

234 ALPINE TUNDRA

235 ARCTIC SHRUB TUNDRA (BIRCH, WILLOW)

236 WOODY TUNDRA (DWARF SHRUBS/WILLOWS)

237 SPARSE TAIGA (DWARF TREES, LARCH)

238 SPARSE TREES, BOGS (HEATH, SHRUB TUNDRA)

239 HERBACEOUS TUNDRA

240 DWARF TREES (WILLOWS, SHRUBS)

241 WOODY TUNDRA/TRANSITIONAL TAIGA (DWARF TREES)

242 WOODY TUNDRA

243 WOODY TUNDRA (BIRCH/WILLOW)

244 TUNDRA/SHORTGRASS/CEDAR, BIRCH FOREST

245 TUNDRA (DWARF BIRCH AND WILLOW)

246 PERMANENT ICE AND SNOW

247 BARREN POLAR DESERT

248 SPARSELY VEGETATED

249 BARREN

250 LOWLAND BARREN/SPARSE VEGETATION

251 DESERT

252 SPARSELY VEGETATED DESERT SHRUBLAND

253 SPARSELY VEGETATED DESERT

254 SHORT GRASS AND SPARSE SHRUB

255 WATER

4.2 Global Ecosystems Legend

Value Description

1 Urban

2 Low Sparse Grassland

3 Coniferous Forest

4 Deciduous Conifer Forest

5 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

6 Evergreen Broadleaf Forests

7 Tall Grasses and Shrubs

8 Bare Desert

9 Upland Tundra

10 Irrigated Grassland

11 Semi Desert

12 Glacier Ice

13 Wooded Wet Swamp

14 Inland Water (see Note 1)

15 Sea Water (see Note 1)

16 Shrub Evergreen

17 Shrub Deciduous

18 Mixed Forest and Field

19 Evergreen Forest and Fields

20 Cool Rain Forest

21 Conifer Boreal Forest

22 Cool Conifer Forest

23 Cool Mixed Forest

24 Mixed Forest

25 Cool Broadleaf Forest

26 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

27 Conifer Forest

28 Montane Tropical Forests

29 Seasonal Tropical Forest

30 Cool Crops and Towns

31 Crops and Town

32 Dry Tropical Woods

33 Tropical Rainforest

34 Tropical Degraded Forest

35 Corn and Beans Cropland

36 Rice Paddy and Field

37 Hot Irrigated Cropland

38 Cool Irrigated Cropland

39 Cold Irrigated Cropland

40 Cool Grasses and Shrubs

41 Hot and Mild Grasses and Shrubs

42 Cold Grassland

43 Savanna (Woods)

44 Mire, Bog, Fen

45 Marsh Wetland

46 Mediterranean Scrub

47 Dry Woody Scrub

48 Dry Evergreen Woods

49 Volcanic Rock

50 Sand Desert

51 Semi Desert Shrubs

52 Semi Desert Sage

53 Barren Tundra

54 Cool Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forests

55 Cool Fields and Woods

56 Forest and Field

57 Cool Forest and Field

58 Fields and Woody Savanna

59 Succulent and Thorn Scrub

60 Small Leaf Mixed Woods

61 Deciduous and Mixed Boreal Forest

62 Narrow Conifers

63 Wooded Tundra

64 Heath Scrub

65 Coastal Wetland, NW

66 Coastal Wetland, NE

67 Coastal Wetland, SE

68 Coastal Wetland, SW

69 Polar and Alpine Desert

70 Glacier Rock

71 Salt Playas

72 Mangrove

73 Water and Island Fringe

74 Land, Water, and Shore (see Note 1)

75 Land and Water, Rivers (see Note 1)

76 Crop and Water Mixtures

77 Southern Hemisphere Conifers

78 Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forest

79 Wet Sclerophylic Forest

80 Coastline Fringe

81 Beaches and Dunes

82 Sparse Dunes and Ridges

83 Bare Coastal Dunes

84 Residual Dunes and Beaches

85 Compound Coastlines

86 Rocky Cliffs and Slopes

87 Sandy Grassland and Shrubs

88 Bamboo

89 Moist Eucalyptus

90 Rain Green Tropical Forest

91 Woody Savanna

92 Broadleaf Crops

93 Grass Crops

94 Crops, Grass, Shrubs

Note 1: In Version 1.2, all water is mapped to one digital value (14).

4.3 IGBP Land Cover Legend

Value Description

1 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest

2 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest

3 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest

4 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

5 Mixed Forest

6 Closed Shrublands

7 Open Shrublands

8 Woody Savannas

9 Savannas

10 Grasslands

11 Permanent Wetlands

12 Croplands

13 Urban and Built-Up

14 Cropland/Natural Vegetation Mosaic

15 Snow and Ice

16 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated

17 Water Bodies

4.4 USGS Land Use/Land Cover System Legend (Modified Level 2)

Value  Code        Description

1      100         Urban and Built-Up Land

2      211         Dryland Cropland and Pasture

3      212         Irrigated Cropland and Pasture

4      213         Mixed Dryland/Irrigated Cropland and Pasture

5      280         Cropland/Grassland Mosaic

6      290         Cropland/Woodland Mosaic

7      311         Grassland

8      321         Shrubland

9      330         Mixed Shrubland/Grassland

10     332         Savanna

11     411         Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

12     412         Deciduous Needleleaf Forest

13     421         Evergreen Broadleaf Forest

14     422         Evergreen Needleleaf Forest

15     430         Mixed Forest

16     500         Water Bodies

17     620         Herbaceous Wetland

18     610         Wooded Wetland

19     770         Barren or Sparsely Vegetated

20     820         Herbaceous Tundra

21     810         Wooded Tundra

22     850         Mixed Tundra

23     830         Bare Ground Tundra

24     900         Snow or Ice

4.5 Simple Biosphere Model Legend

Value Description

1 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees

2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees

3 Deciduous and Evergreen Trees

4 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees

5 Deciduous Needleleaf Trees

6 Ground Cover with Trees and Shrubs

7 Groundcover Only

8 Broadleaf Shrubs with Perennial Ground Cover

9 Broadleaf Shrubs with Bare Soil

10 Groundcover with Dwarf Trees and Shrubs

11 Bare Soil

12 Agriculture or C3 Grassland

17 Persistent Wetland

18 Dry Coastal Complexes

19 Water

20 Ice Cap and Glacier

4.6 Simple Biosphere 2 Model Legend

Value Description

1 Broadleaf Evergreen Trees

2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees

3 Broadleaf and Needleleaf Trees

4 Needleleaf Evergreen Trees

5 Needleleaf Deciduous Trees

6 Short Vegetation/C4 Grassland

7 Shrubs with Bare Soil

8 Dwarf Trees and Shrubs

9 Agriculture or C3 Grassland

10 Water, Wetlands, Ice/Snow

4.7 Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme Legend

Value Description

1 Crops, Mixed Farming

2 Short Grass

3 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees

4 Deciduous Needleleaf Tree

5 Deciduous Broadleaf Trees

6 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees

7 Tall Grass

8 Desert

9 Tundra

10 Irrigated Crops

11 Semidesert

12 Ice Caps and Glaciers

13 Bogs and Marshes

14 Inland Water

15 Ocean

16 Evergreen Shrubs

17 Deciduous Shrubs

18 Mixed Forest

19 Interrupted Forest

20 Water and Land Mixtures

5.0 References

Anderson, J.R., Hardy, E.E., Roach J.T., and Witmer R.E., 1976, A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 28 p.

Belward, A.S., ed., 1996, The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set (DISCover)-proposal and implementation plans: IGBP-DIS Working Paper No. 13, Toulouse, France, 61 p.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., Kennedy, P.J., and Wilson, M.F., 1986, Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model: NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN275+STR, Boulder, CO. 69 p.

Olson, J.S., 1994a, Global ecosystem framework-definitions: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 37 p.

_____ 1994b, Global ecosystem framework-translation strategy: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 39 p.

Sellers, P.J., Mintz, Y., Sud, Y.C., and Dalcher A., 1986, A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models: Journal of Atmospheric Science, v. 43, p. 505-531.

Sellers, P.J., Randall, D.A., Collatz, G.J., Berry, J.A., Field, C.B., Dazlich, D.A., Zhang, C., Collelo, G.D., and Bounoua, L., 1996, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs - Part I-model formulation: Journal of Climate, v. 9, p. 676-705.

Steinwand, D.R., 1994, Mapping raster imagery to the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 15, no. 17, p. 3,463-3,472.

Steinwand, D.R., Hutchinson, J.A., and Snyder, J.P. ,1995, Map projections for global and continental data sets and an analysis of pixel distortion caused by reprojection: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 61, p. 1,487-1,497.

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