Your browser does not support scripts.
USGS - science for a changing world

Global Land Cover Characterization

Australia/Pacific Land Cover Characteristics Data Base Version 2.0



PLEASE NOTE: This is the Version 2.0 release of the Australia/Pacific land cover characteristics data base. The land cover information has been updated from Version 1.2.  Please read section 5.0 for information about the revision process and what changes have been made to the data. 


Table of Contents

1.0 Data Description

The Australia/Pacific land cover data base is one portion of a global land cover characteristics data base that was developed on a continent-by-continent basis. All continents in the global data base share the same map projections (Interrupted Goode Homolosine and Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area), have 1-km nominal spatial resolution, and are based on 1-km AVHRR data spanning April 1992 through March 1993 (Loveland and others, 1999). Each continental data base has unique elements that are based on the salient geographic aspects of the specific continent. In addition, a core set of derived thematic maps produced through the aggregation of seasonal land cover regions are included in each continental data base. These are:

The legends for each of these derived data sets can be found in Section 4.2 - 4.8.

For a description of the methodology for the global data base, see the global readme file found under the LP DAAC home page (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/glcc.php).

The Australia/Pacific land cover characteristics data are in a flat, headerless raster format. The pixel values correspond to class numbers defined in the appropriate land cover classification scheme legend. Data are distributed as compressed and uncompressed single-band images. The files can be obtained either by anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp) or downloaded from the LP Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) World Wide Web site: (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/ap_int.php). The instructions for accessing these files are contained in the following two sections.

1.1 Anonymous FTP for PC or UNIX Users

  1. Contact the FTP server. At your command prompt, use the command: ftp edcftp.cr.usgs.gov
  2. Login as an anonymous user and use your email address as the password.
  3. Change to the directory pub/data/glcc
  4. Change to the Australia/Pacific subdirectory, ap
  5. Change to the directory for the projection of interest (i.e., goode for Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or lambert for Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection).
  6. Locate the file of interest (a complete file listing is located in section 3.0 of this readme). The image files were compressed using the GNU 'gzip' software and can be identified by the ".gz" file extension. These files must be uncompressed before use with the 'gunzip' utility, a part of the 'gzip' software. Directions for acquiring the gzip software from GNU can be found on the WWW on the GNU home page (http://www.gnu.org/). If you do not have access to gzip, the ftp server can uncompress the files as they are retrieved.
  7. To FTP compressed files:
  8. To FTP uncompressed files:
1.2 Downloading from the World Wide Web Site

From the Australia/Pacific Land Cover page, select either data in Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or data in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection. The selection will link to a page that contains links to all documentation files and the image files (both compressed and uncompressed). NOTE: World Wide Web browsers can vary in how the files will be downloaded. On PCs, some browsers will allow a user to interactively select the location where the file will be saved and to edit the file name. However, on certain browsers files may be automatically downloaded to a default storage location on the local system.

  1. Select either button, compressed or uncompressed, for the file of interest.
  2. A pop-up screen may appear, showing information on the download procedure. At this point, choose the directory in which to save the file.
  3. For compressed files, the .gz extension must be added to the filename before downloading. However, if the browser will not accept adding an extension, continue with the download, and then rename the file with the .gz extension when the download is complete.
  4. For uncompressed files, leave the .gz extension off. If a pop-up screen shows the filename with a .gz extension either edit the filename, or proceed with the download and rename the file without the extension after the procedure is complete.
2.0 Geometric Characteristics

The Australia/Pacific data base is available in two different map projections: the Interrupted Goode Homolosine and the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (see Steinwand, 1994 , and Steinwand and others, 1995, for complete descriptions of these projections).

2.1 Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection for the Australia/Pacific land cover characteristics data set are 7,700 lines (rows) and 9,100 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 70 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Interrupted Goode Homolosine

2.2 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection for the Australia/Pacific land cover characteristics data set are 8,000 lines (rows) and 9,300 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 74 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

3.0 File Listing

File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/ap   Australia/Pacific
/pub/data/glcc/ap/goode   Goodes Interupted Homolosine Projection
apdoc2_0.txt ascii Australia/Pacific readme text
apslcr2_0.leg ascii Australia/Pacific seasonal land cover regions legend
aplcdbtab2_0.txt ascii Australia/Pacific land cover database table (tab delimited text)
bats2_0.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp2_0.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge2_0.leg ascii Olson Global Ecosystems legend
run2_0.leg ascii Running Vegetation Lifeforms legend
sib2_0.leg ascii SiB legend
sib22_0.leg ascii SiB2 legend
usgs2_0.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
apbats2_0g.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific BATS image
apdemg.img.gz 16bit Australia/Pacific DEM image
apigbp2_0g.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific IGBP image
apoge2_0g.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific Olson Global Ecosystems image
aprun2_0g.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific Running Vegetation Lifeforms image
apsib2_0g.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific SiB image
apsib22_0g.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific SiB2 image
apslcr2_0g.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific Seasonal Land Cover Regions image
apurbang.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific Digital Chart of the World Urban image
apusgs2_0g.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific USGS land use/land cover image

 
File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/ap   Australia/Pacific
/pub/data/glcc/ap/goode   Goodes Interupted Homolosine Projection
/pub/data/glcc/ap/goode/ndvimon   Monthly NDVI Composites
apaprndg.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
apmayndg.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
apjunndg.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
apjulndg.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
apaugndg.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
apsepndg.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
apoctndg.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
apnovndg.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
apdecndg.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
apjanndg.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
apfebndg.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
apmarndg.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

 
File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/ap   Australia/Pacific
/pub/data/glcc/ap/lambert   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection
apdoc2_0.txt ascii Australia/Pacific readme text
apslcr2_0.leg ascii Australia/Pacific seasonal land cover regions legend
aplcdbtab2_0.txt ascii Australia/Pacific land cover database table (tab delimited text)
bats2_0.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp2_0.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge2_0.leg ascii Olson Global Ecosystems legend
run2_0.leg ascii Running Vegetation Lifeforms legend
sib2_0.leg ascii SiB legend
sib22_0.leg ascii SiB2 legend
usgs2_0.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
apbats2_0l.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific BATS image
apdeml.img.gz 16bit Australia/Pacific DEM image
apigbp2_0l.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific IGBP image
apoge2_0l.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific Olson Global Ecosystems image
aprun2_0l.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific Running Vegetation Lifeforms image
apsib2_0l.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific SiB image
apsib22_0l.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific SiB2 image
apslcr2_0l.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific Seasonal Land Cover Regions image
apurbanl.img.gz   Australia/Pacific Digital Chart of the World Urban image
apusgs2_0l.img.gz byte Australia/Pacific USGS land use/land cover image

 
File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/ap   Australia/Pacific
/pub/data/glcc/ap/lambert   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection
/pub/data/glcc/ap/lambert/ndvimon   Monthly NDVI Composites
apaprndl.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
apmayndl.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
apjunndl.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
apjulndl.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
apaugndl.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
apsepndl.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
apoctndl.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
apnovndl.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
apdecndl.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
apjanndl.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
apfebndl.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
apmarndl.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

4.0 Derived Data Sets

4.1 Australia/Pacific Seasonal Land Cover Regions Legend

Australia/Pacific, v. 2.0
Value Description
1 Lowland Tropical Rain Forest
2 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
3 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
4 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest with Rubber Plantations
5 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
6 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
7 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
8 Tropical Evergreen Montane Forest
9 Tropical Evergreen Forest with Rubber Plantations
10 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
11 Tropical Evergreen Forest
12 Tropical Evergreen Forest
13 Lowland Tropical Evergreen Forest with Mangroves
14 Temperate Moist Broadleaf Evergreen Forest (Podocarp, Beech)
15 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest (Podocarp, Beech)
16 Tropical Evergreen Forest
17 Tropical Evergreen Forest
18 Tropical Evergreen Forest
19 Tropical Evergreen Forest
20 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
21 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
22 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
23 Temperate Broadleaf Evergreen Forest (Eucalyptus)
24 Tropical Evergreen Forest
25 Tropical Evergreen Forest
26 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest (Podocarp, Beech)
27 Tropical Evergreen Forest
28 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest (Podocarp, Beech)
29 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
30 Seasonal Dry Forest
31 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest (Nothofagus)
32 Seasonal Dry Forest
33 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
34 Podocarp, Broadleaf, Beech Forest with Scrub And Exotics
35 Tropical Evergreen Forest
36 Tropical Evergreen Forest
37 Tropical Evergreen Forest
38 Tropical Evergreen Forest
39 Eucalyptus Forest
40 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest with Mangroves (Coastal)
41 Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
42 Tropical Evergreen Forest
43 Eucalyptus Forest
44 Eucalyptus Forest
45 Tropical Evergreen Forest
46 Wet Eucalyptus Forest
47 Plantations (Rubber, Coconut, Palm)
48 Closed Shrubs
49 Shrubland/Grassland (Acacia, Spinifex)
50 Grassland/Shrubland (Acacia, Spinifex) with Eucalyptus Woodland
51 Shrubland/Grassland (Acacia, Mulga)
52 Open Acacia Shrubland with Spinifex
53 Shrubland (Acacia) with Grass
54 Tall Open Shrubland (Acacia, Eucalyptus)
55 Chenopod Shrubland with Open Woodland (Eucalyptus)
56 Open Shrubland (Acacia)/Grassland
57 Shrubland (Tall Shrubs, Mallee)
58 Ecalyptus Woodland
59 Woody Savanna (Eucalyptus, Maleleuca)
60 Eucalyptus Woodland (Trees/Tall Shrubs)
61 Eucalyptus Woodland
62 Eucalyptus Woodland with Pasture
63 Tropical Dry Woodland (Eucalyptus)
64 Eucalyptus Woodland
65 Evergreen Forest/Grassland/Scrub Mosaic (Leptospermum, Podocarp, Beech)
66 Fragmented Forest/Shrub Savanna with Shifting Cultivation, Rice, Corn
67 Low Open Savanna (Eucalyptus, Melaleuca)
68 Deforested, Tropical Montane Savanna
69 Savanna (Eucalyptus, Maleleuca)
70 Savanna (Eucalyptus)
71 Savanna (Eucalyptus)
72 Open Eucalyptus Savanna
73 Savanna
74 Savanna
75 Open Eucalyptus Woodland
76 Savanna (Maleleuca)
77 Savanna
78 Tropical Wet Savanna
79 Grassland/Scrub Mosiac with Beech And Podocarp Forest
80 Subalpine Meadows/Shrub Tundra
81 Grassland with Shrubland
82 Montane Grassland
83 Montane Grassland
84 Grassland (Mitchell Grass) with Woodland (Eucalyptus)
85 Tussock Grassland
86 Grassland (Mitchell Grass)
87 Tropical Montane Grassland with Heath Scrub
88 Montane Grassland
89 Tussock Grassland with Scrub
90 Grassland/Scrub And Fern Bracken
91 Improved Pasture with Crops And Scrub
92 Improved Pasture/Grassland And Mixed Scrub Mosaic
93 Grassland And Pasture
94 Pasture (Improved And Unimproved)/Grassland/Scrub Mosaic with Cropland
95 Wetlands
96 Cropland (Rice, Rubber, Coffee, Coconut)
97 Cropland (Rice, Rubber, Coffee, Coconut)
98 Rice, Shifting Cultivation
99 Cropland (Rice, Rubber, Coffee, Coconut)
100 Rice, Shifting Cultivation
101 Deforested, Shifting Cultivation, Rice, Rubber
102 Cropland (Rubber, Coffee, Coconut, Tea)
103 Rice, Coffee, Shifting Cultivation
104 Rice, Coffee, Shifting Cultivation
105 Cropland (Rubber, Rice, Sugar, Coffee)
106 Pasture, Cropland (Winter Wheat, Winter Barley)
107 Rice, Coffee, Shifting Cultivation
108 Rice, Shifting Cultivation
109 Shifting Cultivation
110 Cropland, Shifting Cultivation
111 Plantations, Shifting Cultivation, Coconut
112 Cropland And Pasture (Winter Wheat, Winter Barley)
113 Shifting Cultivation, Coffee, Rice
114 Rice, Plantations, Shifting Cultivation
115 Rice, Plantations
116 Cropland And Pasture (Orchards, Vinyards)
117 Cropland with Grassland (Coconut, Rice, Sugar Cane, Corn, Vegetables)
118 Rice, Shifting Cultivation
119 Pasture/Cropland
120 Pasture/Cropland
121 Deforested, Heavily Disturbed Grass, Shifting Cultivation
122 Savanna/Shifting Cultivation, Deforested
123 Deforested, Heavily Disturbed Grass, Shifting Cultivation
124 Deforested, Shifting Cultivation, Coffee, Rice
125 Grassland/Cropland
126 Fragmented Forest, Shifting Cultivation, Rice
127 Cropland/Grasslands (Plantations, Rice)
128 Seasonal Tropical Forest/Cropland Mosaic
129 Cropland/Grassland Mosaic
130 Fragmented Forest, Shifting Cultivation
131 Fragmented Forest, Shifting Cultivation
132 Fragmented Forest, Rice, Plantations, Coconut
133 Fragmented Forest, Cropland (Plantations, Rice, Coconut)
134 Fragmented Forest, Rice, Plantations, Coconut, Sugar Cane
135 Tropical Forest, Coconut Plantations
136 Glaciers
137 Barren (Dry Lake Beds, Intermittant Wetlands)
138 Inland Water
139 Ocean

4.2 Global Ecosystems Legend

Value Description
1 Urban
2 Low Sparse Grassland
3 Coniferous Forest
4 Deciduous Conifer Forest
5 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
6 Evergreen Broadleaf Forests
7 Tall Grasses and Shrubs
8 Bare Desert
9 Upland Tundra
10 Irrigated Grassland
11 Semi Desert
12 Glacier Ice
13 Wooded Wet Swamp
14 Inland Water
15 Sea Water
16 Shrub Evergreen
17 Shrub Deciduous
18 Mixed Forest and Field
19 Evergreen Forest and Fields
20 Cool Rain Forest
21 Conifer Boreal Forest
22 Cool Conifer Forest
23 Cool Mixed Forest
24 Mixed Forest
25 Cool Broadleaf Forest
26 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
27 Conifer Forest
28 Montane Tropical Forests
29 Seasonal Tropical Forest
30 Cool Crops and Towns
31 Crops and Town
32 Dry Tropical Woods
33 Tropical Rainforest
34 Tropical Degraded Forest
35 Corn and Beans Cropland
36 Rice Paddy and Field
37 Hot Irrigated Cropland
38 Cool Irrigated Cropland
39 Cold Irrigated Cropland
40 Cool Grasses and Shrubs
41 Hot and Mild Grasses and Shrubs
42 Cold Grassland
43 Savanna (Woods)
44 Mire, Bog, Fen
45 Marsh Wetland
46 Mediterranean Scrub
47 Dry Woody Scrub
48 Dry Evergreen Woods
49 Volcanic Rock
50 Sand Desert
51 Semi Desert Shrubs
52 Semi Desert Sage
53 Barren Tundra
54 Cool Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forests
55 Cool Fields and Woods
56 Forest and Field
57 Cool Forest and Field
58 Fields and Woody Savanna
59 Succulent and Thorn Scrub
60 Small Leaf Mixed Woods
61 Deciduous and Mixed Boreal Forest
62 Narrow Conifers
63 Wooded Tundra
64 Heath Scrub
65 Coastal Wetland, NW
66 Coastal Wetland, NE
67 Coastal Wetland, SE
68 Coastal Wetland, SW
69 Polar and Alpine Desert
70 Glacier Rock
71 Salt Playas
72 Mangrove
73 Water and Island Fringe
74 Land, Water, and Shore
75 Land and Water, Rivers
76 Crop and Water Mixtures
77 Southern Hemisphere Conifers
78 Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forest
79 Wet Sclerophylic Forest
80 Coastline Fringe
81 Beaches and Dunes
82 Sparse Dunes and Ridges
83 Bare Coastal Dunes
84 Residual Dunes and Beaches
85 Compound Coastlines
86 Rocky Cliffs and Slopes
87 Sandy Grassland and Shrubs
88 Bamboo
89 Moist Eucalyptus
90 Rain Green Tropical Forest
91 Woody Savanna
92 Broadleaf Crops
93 Grass Crops
94 Crops, Grass, Shrubs
95 Evergreen Tree Crop
96 Deciduous Tree Crop

4.3 IGBP Land Cover Legend

Value Description
1 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
2 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
3 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
4 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
5 Mixed Forest
6 Closed Shrublands
7 Open Shrublands
8 Woody Savannas
9 Savannas
10 Grasslands
11 Permanent Wetlands
12 Croplands
13 Urban and Built-Up
14 Cropland/Natural Vegetation Mosaic
15 Snow and Ice
16 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
17 Water Bodies

4.4 USGS Land Use/Land Cover System Legend (Modified Level 2)

Value Code Description
1 100 Urban and Built-Up Land
2 211 Dryland Cropland and Pasture
3 212 Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
4 213 Mixed Dryland/Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
5 280 Cropland/Grassland Mosaic
6 290 Cropland/Woodland Mosaic
7 311 Grassland
8 321 Shrubland
9 330 Mixed Shrubland/Grassland
10 332 Savanna
11 411 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
12 412 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
13 421 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
14 422 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
15 430 Mixed Forest
16 500 Water Bodies
17 620 Herbaceous Wetland
18 610 Wooded Wetland
19 770 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
20 820 Herbaceous Tundra
21 810 Wooded Tundra
22 850 Mixed Tundra
23 830 Bare Ground Tundra
24 900 Snow or Ice

4.5 Simple Biosphere Model Legend
Value Description
1 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees
2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees
3 Deciduous and Evergreen Trees
4 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees
5 Deciduous Needleleaf Trees
6 Ground Cover with Trees and Shrubs
7 Groundcover Only
8 Broadleaf Shrubs with Perennial Ground Cover
9 Broadleaf Shrubs with Bare Soil
10 Groundcover with Dwarf Trees and Shrubs
11 Bare Soil
12 Agriculture or C3 Grassland
17 Persistent Wetland
18 Dry Coastal Complexes
19 Water
20 Ice Cap and Glacier

4.6 Simple Biosphere 2 Model Legend
Value Description
1 Broadleaf Evergreen Trees
2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees
3 Broadleaf and Needleleaf Trees
4 Needleleaf Evergreen Trees
5 Needleleaf Deciduous Trees
6 Short Vegetation/C4 Grassland
7 Shrubs with Bare Soil
8 Dwarf Trees and Shrubs
9 Agriculture or C3 Grassland
10 Water, Wetlands
11 Ice/Snow

4.7 Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme Legend

Value Description
1 Crops, Mixed Farming
2 Short Grass
3 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees
4 Deciduous Needleleaf Tree
5 Deciduous Broadleaf Trees
6 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees
7 Tall Grass
8 Desert
9 Tundra
10 Irrigated Crops
11 Semidesert
12 Ice Caps and Glaciers
13 Bogs and Marshes
14 Inland Water
15 Ocean
16 Evergreen Shrubs
17 Deciduous Shrubs
18 Mixed Forest
19 Forest/Field Mosaic
20 Water and Land Mixtures

4.8 Running Vegetation Lifeforms Legend

Value Description
1 Evergreen Needleleaf Vegetation
2 Evergreen Broadleaf Vegetation
3 Deciduous Needleleaf Vegetation
4 Deciduous Broadleaf Vegetation
5 Annual Broadleaf Vegetation
6 Annual Grass Vegetation
7 Non-vegetated Land
8 Water Bodies

5.0 Information on Version 2.0

The first version of the global land cover database was completed and released to the public in November, 1997.  We applied the feedback we received from the users of this database (Brown and others, 1999) and broad lessons learned from the validation exercise of the IGBP DISCover land cover data (Scepan, 1999; Muchoney and others, 1999) to the development of this revised version of the database.  Version 2.0 of the Australia/Pacific land cover database contains updated land cover classes and revised labels.  Users can identify the revised images and documentation by observing  "2.0" or "2_0" in file names (for example, apigbp2_0g.img).  Links to the previous version (1.2) of the land cover database are found on glcc_version1.php. Please send any questions to our Land Cover Applications Center ( lcac@usgs.gov ).

We have provided the specific changes to the Australia/Pacific land cover database in the following ascii text file, aplcdbtab2_0.txt .  The file contains 42 fields (columns) and the data are of variable width with tabs as field delimiters.  The first record (row) of the file corresponds to the field titles.  The following records in the file are indexed by the second field to the Australia/Pacific Seasonal Land Cover Regions (Version 2.0).  The field entitled "Update" contains information specific to the action taken in order to revise the particular Seasonal Land Cover Region (for example, the class was split, merged with another region, or relabeled).

6.0 References

Anderson, J.R., Hardy, E.E., Roach J.T., and Witmer R.E., 1976, A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 28 p.

Belward, A.S., ed., 1996, The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set (DISCover)-proposal and implementation plans: IGBP-DIS Working Paper No. 13, Toulouse, France, 61 p.

Brown, J.F., Loveland, T.R., Ohlen, D.O., Zhu, Z., 1999. The Global Land-Cover Characteristics Database: The Users' Perspective. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1,069-1,074.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., Kennedy, P.J., and Wilson, M.F., 1986, Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model: NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN275+STR, Boulder, CO. 69 p.

Loveland, T.R., Zhu, Z., Ohlen, D.O., Brown, J.F., Reed, B.C., and Yang, L., 1999. An Analysis of the IGBP Global Land-Cover Characterization Process. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1021-1032.

Muchoney, D., Strahler, A., Hodges, J., and LoCastro, J., 1999. The IGBP DISCover Confidence Sites and the System for Terrestrial Ecosystem Parameterization: Tools for Validating Global Land-Cover Data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1061-1067.

Olson, J.S., 1994a, Global ecosystem framework-definitions: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 37 p.

_____ 1994b, Global ecosystem framework-translation strategy: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 39 p.

Running, S.W., Loveland, T.R., and Pierce, L.L., 1994. A Vegetation Classification Logic Based on Remote Sensing for Use in Global Biogeochemical Models, Ambio , v. 23, n. 1, p. 77-81.

Scepan, J., 1999. Thematic Validation of High-Resolution Global Land-Cover Data Sets, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1051-1060.

Sellers, P.J., Mintz, Y., Sud, Y.C., and Dalcher A., 1986, A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models: Journal of Atmospheric Science , v. 43, p. 505-531.

Sellers, P.J., Randall, D.A., Collatz, G.J., Berry, J.A., Field, C.B., Dazlich, D.A., Zhang, C., Collelo, G.D., and Bounoua, L., 1996, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs - Part I-model formulation: Journal of Climate , v. 9, p. 676-705.

Steinwand, D.R., 1994, Mapping raster imagery to the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection: International Journal of Remote Sensing , v. 15, no. 17, p. 3,463-3,472.

Steinwand, D.R., Hutchinson, J.A., and Snyder, J.P. ,1995, Map projections for global and continental data sets and an analysis of pixel distortion caused by reprojection: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 61, p. 1,487-1,497.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://edc2.usgs.gov/glcc/apdoc2_0.php
Page Contact Information: custserv@usgs.gov
Page Last Modified: June 23, 2008