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USGS - science for a changing world

Global Land Cover Characterization

Australia/Pacific Land Cover Characteristics Data Base Version 1.2

PLEASE NOTE: This is the Version 1.2 release of the Australia/Pacific land cover characteristics data base. It has not yet been validated and is subject to review. Following validation, the data base will be modified based on the lessons learned. Comments from users of this data set are encouraged and will be considered for incorporation in later versions. Please email comments to:

lcac@edcmail.cr.usgs.gov


Table of Contents

1.0 Data Description

The Australia/Pacific land cover data base is one portion of a global land cover characteristics data base that is being developed on a continent-by-continent basis. All continents in the global data base share the same map projections (Interrupted Goode Homolosine and Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area), have 1-km nominal spatial resolution, and are based on 1-km AVHRR data spanning April 1992 through March 1993. Each continental data base has unique elements that are based on the salient geographic aspects of the specific continent. In addition, a core set of derived thematic maps produced through the aggregation of seasonal land cover regions are included in each continental data base. These are:

The legends for each of these derived data sets can be found in Section 4.2 - 4.7.

For a description of the methodology for the global data base, see the global readme file found under the LP DAAC home page (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/)

The Australia/Pacific land cover characteristics data are in a flat, headerless raster format. The pixel values correspond to class numbers defined in the appropriate land cover classification scheme legend. Data are distributed as compressed and uncompressed single-band images. The files can be obtained either by anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp) or downloaded from the LP Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) World Wide Web site: (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/af_int.php). The instructions for accessing these files are contained in the following two sections.

1.1 Anonymous FTP for PC or UNIX Users

  1. Contact the FTP server. At your command prompt, use the command: ftp edcftp.cr.usgs.gov
  2. Login as an anonymous user and use your email address as the password.
  3. Change to the directory pub/data/glcc
  4. Change to the AUSTRALIA/PACIFIC subdirectory, ap
  5. Change to the directory for the projection of interest (i.e., goode for Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or lambert for Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection).
  6. Locate the file of interest (a complete file listing is located in section 3.0 of this readme). The image files were compressed using the GNU 'gzip' software and can be identified by the ".gz" file extension. These files must be uncompressed before use with the 'gunzip' utility, a part of the 'gzip' software. Directions for acquiring the gzip software from GNU can be found on the WWW on the GNU home page (http://www.gnu.org/). If you do not have access to gzip, the ftp server can uncompress the files as they are retrieved.
  7. To FTP compressed files:
  8. To FTP uncompressed files:

1.2 Downloading from the World Wide Web Site

From the Australia/Pacific Land Cover page, select either data in Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or data in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection. The selection will link to a page that contains links to all documentation files and the image files (both compressed and uncompressed). NOTE: World Wide Web browsers can vary in how the files will be downloaded. On PCs, some browsers will allow a user to interactively select the location where the file will be saved and to edit the file name. However, on certain browsers files may be automatically downloaded to a default storage location on the local system.

  1. Select either button, compressed or uncompressed, for the file of interest.
  2. A pop-up screen may appear, showing information on the download procedure. At this point, choose the directory in which to save the file.
  3. For compressed files, the .gz extension must be added to the filename before downloading. However, if the browser will not accept adding an extension, continue with the download, and then rename the file with the .gz extension when the download is complete.
  4. For uncompressed files, leave the .gz extension off. If a pop-up screen shows the filename with a .gz extension either edit the filename, or proceed with the download and rename the file without the extension after the procedure is complete.

2.0 Geometric Characteristics

The Australia/Pacific data base is available in two different map projections: the Interrupted Goode Homolosine and the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (see Steinwand, 1994, and Steinwand and others, 1995, for complete descriptions of these projections).

2.1 Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection for the Australia/Pacific land cover characteristics data set are 7,700 lines (rows) and 9,100 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 70 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Interrupted Goode Homolosine

2.2 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection for the Australia/Pacific land cover characteristics data set are 8,000 lines (rows) and 9,300 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 74 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

3.0 File Listing

File (or Directory)Data TypeDESCRIPTION
/pub/data/glcc/ap Australia/Pacific
/pub/data/glcc/ap/goode Goode's Interrupted Homolosine Projection
apdoc1_2.txtasciiAustralia/Pacific readme text
apslcr1_2.legasciiAustralia/Pacific Seasonal land cover regions legend
bats.legasciiBATS legend
igbp.legasciiIGBP legend
oge.legasciiGlobal Ecosystems legend
sib.legasciiSIB legend
sib2.legasciiSIB2 legend
usgs.legasciiUSGS land use/land cover legend
apbats1_2g.img.gzbyteBATS image
apdemg.img.gzI*2DEM image
apigbp1_2g.img.gzbyteIGBP image
apoge1_2g.img.gzbyteGlobal Ecosystems image
apsib1_2g.img.gzbyteSIB image
apsib21_2g.img.gzbyteSIB2 image
apslcr1_2g.img.gzbyteSeasonal land cover regions image
apurbang.img.gzbyteDigital Chart of the World urban image
apusgs1_2g.img.gzbyteUSGS land use/land cover image
 
/pub/data/glcc/ap/goode/ndvimon Monthly NDVI Composite Images
apaprndg.img.gzbyteApril, 1992 NDVI image
apmayndg.img.gzbyteMay, 1992 NDVI image
apjunndg.img.gzbyteJune, 1992 NDVI image
apjulndg.img.gzbyteJuly, 1992 NDVI image
apaugndg.img.gzbyteAugust, 1992 NDVI image
apsepndg.img.gzbyteSeptember, 1992 NDVI image
apoctndg.img.gzbyteOctober, 1992 NDVI image
apnovndg.img.gzbyteNovember, 1992 NDVI image
apdecndg.img.gzbyteDecember, 1992 NDVI image
apjanndg.img.gzbyteJanuary, 1993 NDVI image
apfebndg.img.gzbyteFebruary, 1993 NDVI image
apmarndg.img.gzbyteMarch, 1993 NDVI image
 
/pub/data/glcc/ap/lambert Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection
apdoc1_2.txtasciiAustralia/Pacific readme text
apslcr1_2.legasciiAustralia/Pacific seasonal land cover regions legend
bats.legasciiBATS legend
igbp.legasciiIGBP legend
oge.legasciiGlobal Ecosystems legend
sib.legasciiSIB legend
sib2.legasciiSIB2 legend
usgs.legasciiUSGS land use/land cover legend
apbats1_2l.img.gzbyteBATS image
apdeml.img.gzI*2DEM image
apigbp1_2l.img.gzbyteIGBP image
apoge1_2l.img.gzbyteGlobal Ecosystems image
apsib1_2l.img.gzbyteSIB image
apsib21_2l.img.gzbyteSIB2 image
apslcr1_2l.img.gzbyteSeasonal land cover regions image
apurbanl.img.gzbyteDCW urban image
apusgs1_2l.img.gzbyteUSGS land use/land cover image
 
/pub/data/glcc/ap/lambert/ndvimon Monthly NDVI Composite Images
apaprndl.img.gzbyteApril, 1992 NDVI image
apmayndl.img.gzbyteMay, 1992 NDVI image
apjunndl.img.gzbyteJune, 1992 NDVI image
apjulndl.img.gzbyteJuly, 1992 NDVI image
apaugndl.img.gzbyteAugust, 1992 NDVI image
apsepndl.img.gzbyteSeptember, 1992 NDVI image
apoctndl.img.gzbyteOctober, 1992 NDVI image
apnovndl.img.gzbyteNovember, 1992 NDVI image
apdecndl.img.gzbyteDecember, 1992 NDVI image
apjanndl.img.gzbyteJanuary, 1993 NDVI image
apfebndl.img.gzbyteFebruary, 1993 NDVI image
apmarndl.img.gzbyteMarch, 1993 NDVI image

4.0 Derived Data Sets

4.1 Australia/Pacific Seasonal Land Cover Regions Legend

Australia/Pacific, v. 1.2

Value Description

1 CROPLAND (RICE, RUBBER, COFFEE, COCONUT)

2 DEFORESTED, HEAVILY DISTURBED GRASS, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

3 CROPLAND (RICE, RUBBER, COFFEE, COCONUT)

4 RICE, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

5 CROPLAND (RICE, RUBBER, COFFEE, COCONUT)

6 DEFORESTED, HEAVILY DISTURBED GRASS, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

7 RICE, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

8 DEFORESTED, SHIFTING CULTIVATION, RICE, RUBBER

9 CROPLAND (RUBBER, COFFEE, COCONUT, TEA)

10 RICE, COFFEE, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

11 RICE, COFFEE, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

12 CROPLAND (RUBBER, RICE, SUGAR, COFFEE)

13 PASTURE, CROPLAND (WINTER WHEAT, WINTER BARLEY)

14 RICE, COFFEE, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

15 RICE, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

16 DEFORESTED, SHIFTING CULTIVATION, COFFEE, RICE

17 CROPLAND, PASTURE

18 SHIFTING CULTIVATION

19 CROPLAND, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

20 CROPLAND AND PASTURE (WINTER WHEAT, WINTER BARLEY)

21 SHIFTING CULTIVATION, COFFEE, RICE

22 PLANTATIONS, SHIFTING CULTIVATION, COCONUT

23 RICE, PLANTATIONS, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

24 RICE, PLANTATIONS

25 CROPLAND AND PASTURE (ORCHARDS, VINEYARDS)

26 CROPLAND WITH GRASSLAND (COCONUT, RICE, SUGAR CANE, CORN, VEGETABLES)

27 RICE, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

28 PASTURE/CROPLAND

29 SHIFTING CULTIVATION, RICE, COCONUT

30 SHIFTING CULTIVATION, COCONUT, COFFEE

31 CROPLAND (RICE, COCONUT)

32 PLANTATIONS (RUBBER, COCONUT, PALM)

33 SAVANNA/SHIFTING CULTIVATION, DEFORESTED

34 FRAGMENTED FOREST/SHRUB SAVANNA WITH SHIFTING CULTIVATION, RICE, CORN

35 FRAGMENTED FOREST, SHIFTING CULTIVATION, RICE

36 FRAGMENTED FOREST, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

37 FRAGMENTED FOREST, SHIFTING CULTIVATION

38 FRAGMENTED FOREST, RICE, PLANTATIONS, COCONUT

39 FRAGMENTED FOREST, CROPLAND (PLANTATIONS, RICE, COCONUT)

40 FRAGMENTED FOREST, RICE, PLANTATIONS, COCONUT, SUGAR CANE

41 FRAGMENTED TROPICAL FOREST, COCONUT PLANTATIONS

42 GRASSLAND/CROPLAND

43 CROPLAND/GRASSLANDS (PLANTATIONS, RICE)

44 IMPROVED PASTURE WITH CROPS AND SCRUB

45 MONTANE GRASSLAND

46 MONTANE GRASSLAND

47 TUSSOCK GRASSLAND

48 GRASSLAND (MITCHELL GRASS)

49 TROPICAL MONTANE GRASSLAND WITH HEATH SCRUB

50 MONTANE GRASSLAND

51 TUSSOCK GRASSLAND WITH SCRUB

52 GRASSLAND

53 GRASSLAND WITH SHRUBLAND

54 SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND (ACACIA, SPINIFEX)

55 GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND (ACACIA, SPINIFEX) WITH EUCALYPTUS WOODLAND

56 GRASSLAND/SCRUB AND FERN BRACKEN

57 IMPROVED PASTURE/GRASSLAND AND MIXED SCRUB MOSAIC

58 PASTURE (IMPROVED AND UNIMPROVED)/GRASSLAND/SCRUB MOSAIC WITH CROPLAND

59 SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND (ACACIA, "MULGA")

60 OPEN ACACIA SHRUBLAND WITH SPINIFEX

61 OPEN ACACIA SHRUBLAND WITH EUCALYPTUS WOODLAND

62 SHRUBLAND (ACACIA) WITH GRASS

63 CHENOPOD SHRUBLAND WITH OPEN WOODLAND (EUCALYPTUS)

64 OPEN SHRUBLAND (ACACIA)

65 SHRUBLAND (TALL SHRUBS, "MALLEE")

66 ACACIA SHRUBLAND

67 TALL SHRUBS

68 GRASSLAND (MITCHELL GRASS) WITH WOODLAND (EUCALYPTUS)

69 DEFORESTED, TROPICAL MONTANE SAVANNA

70 TALL SHRUB/SAVANNA (ACACIA, EUCALYPTUS)

71 SAVANNA (EUCALYPTUS, MELALEUCA)

72 SAVANNA (EUCALYPTUS)

73 SAVANNA (EUCALYPTUS)

74 SAVANNA

75 SAVANNA (MELALEUCA)

76 TROPICAL WET SAVANNA

77 GRASSLAND/SCRUB MOSAIC WITH BEECH AND PODOCARP FOREST

78 LOWLAND TROPICAL RAIN FOREST

79 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

80 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

81 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST WITH RUBBER PLANTATIONS

82 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

83 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

84 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

85 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

86 TROPICAL EVERGREEN MONTANE FOREST

87 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST WITH RUBBER PLANTATIONS

88 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

89 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

90 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

91 LOWLAND TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST WITH MANGROVES

92 TEMPERATE MOIST BROADLEAF EVERGREEN FOREST (PODOCARP, BEECH)

93 PODOCARP, BROADLEAF, BEECH FOREST

94 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

95 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

96 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

97 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

98 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

99 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

100 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

101 TEMPERATE BROADLEAF EVERGREEN FOREST (EUCALYPTUS)

102 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

103 TROPICAL DRY FOREST (EUCALYPTUS)

104 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

105 PODOCARP, BROADLEAF, BEECH FOREST

106 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

107 PODOCARP, BROADLEAF, BEECH FOREST

108 SEASONAL DRY FOREST

109 TEMPERATE/SUBTROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST (NOTHOFAGUS, EUCALYPTUS)

110 SEASONAL DRY FOREST

111 PODOCARP, BROADLEAF, BEECH FOREST WITH SCRUB AND EXOTIC SPECIES

112 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

113 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

114 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

115 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

116 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST WITH MANGROVES (COASTAL)

117 TROPICAL EVERGREEN RAINFOREST

118 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

119 EUCALYPTUS FOREST

120 EUCALYPTUS FOREST

121 TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

122 EUCALYPTUS FOREST

123 EUCALYPTUS WOODLAND

124 WOODY SAVANNA (EUCALYPTUS, MELALEUCA)

125 OPEN EUCALYPTUS WOODLAND

126 EUCALYPTUS WOODLAND

127 EUCALYPTUS WOODLAND

128 EUCALYPTUS WOODLAND WITH PASTURE

129 EUCALYPTUS WOODLAND

130 EVERGREEN FOREST/GRASSLAND/SCRUB MOSAIC (LEPTOSPERMUM, PODOCARP, BEECH)

131 WOODY SAVANNA

132 OPEN EUCALYPTUS FOREST

133 WETLANDS

134 SUBALPINE MEADOWS/SHRUB TUNDRA

135 GLACIERS

136 BARREN (DRY LAKE BEDS)

137 WATER

4.2 Global Ecosystems Legend

Value Description

1 Urban

2 Low Sparse Grassland

3 Coniferous Forest

4 Deciduous Conifer Forest

5 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

6 Evergreen Broadleaf Forests

7 Tall Grasses and Shrubs

8 Bare Desert

9 Upland Tundra

10 Irrigated Grassland

11 Semi Desert

12 Glacier Ice

13 Wooded Wet Swamp

14 Inland Water (see Note 1)

15 Sea Water (see Note 1)

16 Shrub Evergreen

17 Shrub Deciduous

18 Mixed Forest and Field

19 Evergreen Forest and Fields

20 Cool Rain Forest

21 Conifer Boreal Forest

22 Cool Conifer Forest

23 Cool Mixed Forest

24 Mixed Forest

25 Cool Broadleaf Forest

26 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

27 Conifer Forest

28 Montane Tropical Forests

29 Seasonal Tropical Forest

30 Cool Crops and Towns

31 Crops and Town

32 Dry Tropical Woods

33 Tropical Rainforest

34 Tropical Degraded Forest

35 Corn and Beans Cropland

36 Rice Paddy and Field

37 Hot Irrigated Cropland

38 Cool Irrigated Cropland

39 Cold Irrigated Cropland

40 Cool Grasses and Shrubs

41 Hot and Mild Grasses and Shrubs

42 Cold Grassland

43 Savanna (Woods)

44 Mire, Bog, Fen

45 Marsh Wetland

46 Mediterranean Scrub

47 Dry Woody Scrub

48 Dry Evergreen Woods

49 Volcanic Rock

50 Sand Desert

51 Semi Desert Shrubs

52 Semi Desert Sage

53 Barren Tundra

54 Cool Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forests

55 Cool Fields and Woods

56 Forest and Field

57 Cool Forest and Field

58 Fields and Woody Savanna

59 Succulent and Thorn Scrub

60 Small Leaf Mixed Woods

61 Deciduous and Mixed Boreal Forest

62 Narrow Conifers

63 Wooded Tundra

64 Heath Scrub

65 Coastal Wetland, NW

66 Coastal Wetland, NE

67 Coastal Wetland, SE

68 Coastal Wetland, SW

69 Polar and Alpine Desert

70 Glacier Rock

71 Salt Playas

72 Mangrove

73 Water and Island Fringe

74 Land, Water, and Shore (see Note 1)

75 Land and Water, Rivers (see Note 1)

76 Crop and Water Mixtures

77 Southern Hemisphere Conifers

78 Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forest

79 Wet Sclerophylic Forest

80 Coastline Fringe

81 Beaches and Dunes

82 Sparse Dunes and Ridges

83 Bare Coastal Dunes

84 Residual Dunes and Beaches

85 Compound Coastlines

86 Rocky Cliffs and Slopes

87 Sandy Grassland and Shrubs

88 Bamboo

89 Moist Eucalyptus

90 Rain Green Tropical Forest

91 Woody Savanna

92 Broadleaf Crops

93 Grass Crops

94 Crops, Grass, Shrubs

Note 1: In Version 1.2, all water is mapped to one digital value (14).

4.3 IGBP Land Cover Legend

Value Description

1 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest

2 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest

3 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest

4 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

5 Mixed Forest

6 Closed Shrublands

7 Open Shrublands

8 Woody Savannas

9 Savannas

10 Grasslands

11 Permanent Wetlands

12 Croplands

13 Urban and Built-Up

14 Cropland/Natural Vegetation Mosaic

15 Snow and Ice

16 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated

17 Water Bodies

4.4 USGS Land Use/Land Cover System Legend (Modified Level 2)

Value Code Description
1 100 Urban and Built-Up Land
2 211 Dryland Cropland and Pasture
3 212 Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
4 213 Mixed Dryland/Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
5 280 Cropland/Grassland Mosaic
6 290 Cropland/Woodland Mosaic
7 311 Grassland
8 321 Shrubland
9 330 Mixed Shrubland/Grassland
10 332 Savanna
11 411 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
12 412 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
13 421 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
14 422 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
15 430 Mixed Forest
16 500 Water Bodies
17 620 Herbaceous Wetland
18 610 Wooded Wetland
19 770 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
20 820 Herbaceous Tundra
21 810 Wooded Tundra
22 850 Mixed Tundra
23 830 Bare Ground Tundra
24 900 Snow or Ice

4.5 Simple Biosphere Model Legend

Value Description

1 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees

2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees

3 Deciduous and Evergreen Trees

4 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees

5 Deciduous Needleleaf Trees

6 Ground Cover with Trees and Shrubs

7 Groundcover Only

8 Broadleaf Shrubs with Perennial Ground Cover

9 Broadleaf Shrubs with Bare Soil

10 Groundcover with Dwarf Trees and Shrubs

11 Bare Soil

12 Agriculture or C3 Grassland

17 Persistent Wetland

18 Dry Coastal Complexes

19 Water

20 Ice Cap and Glacier

4.6 Simple Biosphere 2 Model Legend

Value Description

1 Broadleaf Evergreen Trees

2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees

3 Broadleaf and Needleleaf Trees

4 Needleleaf Evergreen Trees

5 Needleleaf Deciduous Trees

6 Short Vegetation/C4 Grassland

7 Shrubs with Bare Soil

8 Dwarf Trees and Shrubs

9 Agriculture or C3 Grassland

10 Water, Wetlands, Ice/Snow

4.7 Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme Legend

Value Description

1 Crops, Mixed Farming

2 Short Grass

3 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees

4 Deciduous Needleleaf Tree

5 Deciduous Broadleaf Trees

6 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees

7 Tall Grass

8 Desert

9 Tundra

10 Irrigated Crops

11 Semidesert

12 Ice Caps and Glaciers

13 Bogs and Marshes

14 Inland Water

15 Ocean

16 Evergreen Shrubs

17 Deciduous Shrubs

18 Mixed Forest

19 Interrupted Forest

20 Water and Land Mixtures

5.0 References

Anderson, J.R., Hardy, E.E., Roach J.T., and Witmer R.E., 1976, A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 28 p.

Belward, A.S., ed., 1996, The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set (DISCover)-proposal and implementation plans: IGBP-DIS Working Paper No. 13, Toulouse, France, 61 p.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., Kennedy, P.J., and Wilson, M.F., 1986, Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model: NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN275+STR, Boulder, CO. 69 p.

Olson, J.S., 1994a, Global ecosystem framework-definitions: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 37 p.

_____ 1994b, Global ecosystem framework-translation strategy: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 39 p.

Sellers, P.J., Mintz, Y., Sud, Y.C., and Dalcher A., 1986, A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models: Journal of Atmospheric Science, v. 43, p. 505-531.

Sellers, P.J., Randall, D.A., Collatz, G.J., Berry, J.A., Field, C.B., Dazlich, D.A., Zhang, C., Collelo, G.D., and Bounoua, L., 1996, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs - Part I-model formulation: Journal of Climate, v. 9, p. 676-705.

Steinwand, D.R., 1994, Mapping raster imagery to the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 15, no. 17, p. 3,463-3,472.

Steinwand, D.R., Hutchinson, J.A., and Snyder, J.P. ,1995, Map projections for global and continental data sets and an analysis of pixel distortion caused by reprojection: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 61, p. 1,487-1,497.

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