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Global Land Cover Characterization

Africa Land Cover Characteristics Data Base Version 2.0



PLEASE NOTE: This is the Version 2.0 release of the Africa land cover characteristics data base. The land cover information has been updated from Version 1.2.  Please read section 5.0 for information about the revision process and what changes have been made to the data. 

Table of Contents

1.0 Data Description

The Africa land cover data base is one portion of a global land cover characteristics data base that was developed on a continent-by-continent basis. All continents in the global data base share the same map projections (Interrupted Goode Homolosine and Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area), have 1-km nominal spatial resolution, and are based on 1-km AVHRR data spanning April 1992 through March 1993 (Loveland and others, 1999). Each continental data base has unique elements that are based on the salient geographic aspects of the specific continent. In addition, a core set of derived thematic maps produced through the aggregation of seasonal land cover regions are included in each continental data base. These are:

The legends for each of these derived data sets can be found in Section 4.2 - 4.8.

For a description of the methodology for the global data base, see the global readme file found under the LP DAAC home page (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/glcc.php).

The Africa land cover characteristics data are in a flat, headerless raster format. The pixel values correspond to class numbers defined in the appropriate land cover classification scheme legend. Data are distributed as compressed and uncompressed single-band images. The files can be obtained either by anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp) or downloaded from the LP Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) World Wide Web site: (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/af_int.php). The instructions for accessing these files are contained in the following two sections.

1.1 Anonymous FTP for PC or UNIX Users

  1. Contact the FTP server. At your command prompt, use the command: ftp edcftp.cr.usgs.gov
  2. Login as an anonymous user and use your email address as the password.
  3. Change to the directory pub/data/glcc
  4. Change to the Africa subdirectory, af
  5. Change to the directory for the projection of interest (i.e., goode for Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or lambert for Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection).
  6. Locate the file of interest (a complete file listing is located in section 3.0 of this readme). The image files were compressed using the GNU 'gzip' software and can be identified by the ".gz" file extension. These files must be uncompressed before use with the 'gunzip' utility, a part of the 'gzip' software. Directions for acquiring the gzip software from GNU can be found on the WWW on the GNU home page (http://www.gnu.org/). If you do not have access to gzip, the ftp server can uncompress the files as they are retrieved.
  7. To FTP compressed files:
  8. To FTP uncompressed files:
1.2 Downloading from the World Wide Web Site

From the Africa Land Cover page, select either data in Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or data in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection. The selection will link to a page that contains links to all documentation files and the image files (both compressed and uncompressed). NOTE: World Wide Web browsers can vary in how the files will be downloaded. On PCs, some browsers will allow a user to interactively select the location where the file will be saved and to edit the file name. However, on certain browsers files may be automatically downloaded to a default storage location on the local system.

  1. Select either button, compressed or uncompressed, for the file of interest.
  2. A pop-up screen may appear, showing information on the download procedure. At this point, choose the directory in which to save the file.
  3. For compressed files, the .gz extension must be added to the filename before downloading. However, if the browser will not accept adding an extension, continue with the download, and then rename the file with the .gz extension when the download is complete.
  4. For uncompressed files, leave the .gz extension off. If a pop-up screen shows the filename with a .gz extension either edit the filename, or proceed with the download and rename the file without the extension after the procedure is complete.
2.0 Geometric Characteristics

The Africa data base is available in two different map projections: the Interrupted Goode Homolosine and the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (see Steinwand, 1994 , and Steinwand and others, 1995, for a complete description of these projections).

2.1 Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection for the Africa land cover characteristics data set are 8,676 lines (rows) and 8,350 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 72 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Interrupted Goode Homolosine

2.2 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection for the Africa land cover characteristics data set are 9,276 lines (rows) and 8,350 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 77 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

3.0 File Listing

File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/af   Africa
/pub/data/glcc/af/goode   Goodes Interupted Homolosine Projection
afdoc2_0.txt ascii Africa readme text
afslcr2_0.leg ascii Africa seasonal land cover regions legend
aflcdbtab2_0.txt ascii Africa land cover database table (tab delimited text)
bats2_0.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp2_0.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge2_0.leg ascii Olson Global Ecosystems legend
run2_0.leg ascii Running Vegetation Lifeforms legend
sib2_0.leg ascii SiB legend
sib22_0.leg ascii SiB2legend
usgs2_0.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
afbats2_0g.img.gz byte Africa BATS image
afdemg.img.gz 16bit Africa DEM image
afigbp2_0g.img.gz byte Africa IGBP image
afoge2_0g.img.gz byte Africa Olson Global Ecosystems image
afrun2_0g.img.gz byte Africa Running Vegetation Lifeforms image
afsib2_0g.img.gz byte Africa SiB image
afsib22_0g.img.gz byte Africa SiB2 image
afslcr2_0g.img.gz byte Africa Seasonal Land Cover Regions image
afurbang.img.gz byte Africa Digital Chart of the World urban image
afusgs2_0g.img.gz byte Africa USGS land use/land cover image

 
File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/af   Africa
/pub/data/glcc/af/goode   Goodes Interupted Homolosine Projection
/pub/data/glcc/af/goode/ndvimon   Monthly NDVI Composites
afaprndg.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
afmayndg.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
afjunndg.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
afjulndg.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
afaugndg.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
afsepndg.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
afoctndg.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
afnovndg.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
afdecndg.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
afjanndg.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
affebndg.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
afmarndg.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

 
File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/af   Africa
/pub/data/glcc/af/lambert   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection
afdoc2_0.txt ascii Africa readme text
afslcr2_0.leg ascii Africa seasonal land cover regions legend
aflcdbtab2_0.txt ascii Africa land cover database table (tab delimited text)
bats2_0.leg ascii BATS legend
igbp2_0.leg ascii IGBP legend
oge2_0.leg ascii Olson Global Ecosystems legend
run2_0.leg ascii Running Vegetation Lifeforms legend
sib2_0.leg ascii SiB legend
sib22_0.leg ascii SiB2 legend
usgs2_0.leg ascii USGS land use/land cover legend
afbats2_0l.img.gz byte Africa BATS image
afdeml.img.gz 16bit Africa DEM image
afigbp2_0l.img.gz byte Africa IGBP image
afoge2_0l.img.gz byte Africa Olson Global Ecosystems image
afrun2_0l.img.gz byte Africa Running Vegetation Lifeforms image
afsib2_0l.img.gz byte Africa SiB image
afsib22_0l.img.gz byte Africa SiB2 image
afslcr2_0l.img.gz byte Africa Seasonal Land Cover Regions image
afurbanl.img.gz byte Africa Digital Chart of the World urban image
afusgs2_0l.img.gz byte Africa USGS land use/land cover image

 
File (or Directory ) Data Type Description
/pub/data/glcc/af   Africa
/pub/data/glcc/af/lambert   Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection
/pub/data/glcc/af/lambert/ndvimon   Monthly NDVI Composites
afaprndl.img.gz byte April, 1992 NDVI image
afmayndl.img.gz byte May, 1992 NDVI image
afjunndl.img.gz byte June, 1992 NDVI image
afjulndl.img.gz byte July, 1992 NDVI image
afaugndl.img.gz byte August, 1992 NDVI image
afsepndl.img.gz byte September, 1992 NDVI image
afoctndl.img.gz byte October, 1992 NDVI image
afnovndl.img.gz byte November, 1992 NDVI image
afdecndl.img.gz byte December, 1992 NDVI image
afjanndl.img.gz byte January, 1993 NDVI image
affebndl.img.gz byte February, 1993 NDVI image
afmarndl.img.gz byte March, 1993 NDVI image

4.0 Derived Data Sets

4.1 Africa Seasonal Land Cover Regions Legend
Africa, v. 2.0
Value Description
1 Fir/Cedar Forest
2 Atlantic Coast Dry Forest
3 Secondary Semi-deciduous Forest/Woodland
4 Tropical Plantations
5 Tropical Rainforest
6 Tropical Rainforest
7 Secondary Tropical Lowland Forest with Mangroves
8 Open And Fragmented Forest
9 Tropical Rainforest with Savanna
10 Tropical Rainforest
11 Sclerophyllous Forest (Deciduous and Evergreen Oak)
12 Tropical Rainforest with Savanna
13 Tropical Rainforest
14 Tropical Plantations (Rubber, Coffee, Tea)
15 Miombo Woodland and Shrubland
16 Montane Evergreen Forests
17 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
18 Miombo Woodland
19 Montane Evergreen Forest
20 Tropical Rainforest
21 Miombo Woodland
22 Low Open Forest/Woodland
23 Miombo Woodland/Forest
24 Tropical Forest
25 Tropical Rainforest
26 Secondary Tropical Forest
27 Tropical Rainforest
28 Humid Tropical Forest
29 Tropical Forest with Semi-Deciduous Element
30 Tropical Forest/Miombo Woodland
31 Tropical Broadleaf Evergreen Rainforest
32 Tropical Broadleaf Evergreen Rainforest
33 Montane Broadleaf Evergreen Forest
34 Broadleaf Semideciduous Forest
35 Montane Broadleaf Evergreen Woodland
36 Dense Tropical Rainforest
37 Tropical Forest with Semi-Deciduous Element
38 Dry Deciduous Forest with Grassland
39 Conifer And Bamboo
40 Open Montane Forests Mixed With Bamboo
41 Subtropical Forest, Forest Plantation
42 Sclerophyllous Scrub with Cereal Crops
43 Acacia Bushland/Thicket
44 Acacia Bushland/Thicket
45 Sclerophyllous Scrub/Woodland
46 Acacia Bushland/Thicket
47 Bushland and Thicket
48 Sclerophyllous Scrub with Cereal Crops
49 Bush Woodland
50 Acacia Bushland Thicket
51 Schlerophyllous Scrub/Woodlands
52 Acacia Bushland/Thicket
53 Cropland/Degraded Forest Savanna
54 Desert Shrubland/Grassland
55 Desert Shrubland/Grassland
56 Desert Shrubland/Grassland
57 Desert Shrubland/Grassland
58 Bush/Shrubland
59 Annual Grass and Sahel Shrub
60 Acacia Shrubland/Grassland
61 Desert with Succulent Shrubs
62 Acacia Bush/Thornland Thicket
63 Desert/Hammadas/Shrubland
64 Semi-Desert Shrubland with Grassland
65 Shrubland with Grassland
66 Acacia Bushland/Thickets
67 Shrubland with Grassland
68 Semi-Desert Shrubland with Grassland
69 Acacia Shrubland/Bushland
70 Bushland and Thicket
71 Dry Deciduous Forest/Grassland Mosaic
72 Bamboo, Plantations
73 Sudanian Woodland with Crops
74 Atlantic Evergreen Broadleaf, Lowland Dry Woodland
75 Transitional Forest/Sudanian Woodland
76 Sudanian Dry Woodland
77 Grassland/Woodland Mosaic
78 Tree Savanna
79 Tree Savanna
80 Degraded Forest/Savanna with Cropland
81 Miombo Woodland And Woody Plantations
82 Evergreen Broadleaf Woodland
83 Savanna/Miombo Woodland
84 Woody Savanna
85 Sudanian Woodland
86 Dense Sudanian Woodland with Grassland
87 Miombo Woodland
88 Sudanian Woodland
89 Sudanian Woodland
90 Woody Savanna Degraded From Dry Forest
91 Woodland, Woody Savanna
92 Woodland, Woody Savanna
93 Grassland/Sudanian Woodland
94 Sudanian Woodland/Savanna
95 Sudanian Woodland/Savanna
96 Deciduous Thicket/Grassland Mosaic
97 Scrub Woodland Or Tree Savanna
98 Sudanian Woodland with Crops
99 Savanna
100 Shrub Savanna
101 Woodland/Grass/Shrub Mosaic
102 Montane Dry Sparse Forest/Grassland
103 Savanna
104 Savanna
105 Savanna
106 Savanna
107 Low Shrub - Bushland Savanna with Cropland
108 Savanna with Cropland
109 Woodland/Acacia/Grassland Mosaic
110 Woodland/Grassland Savanna
111 Savanna
112 Savanna with Cropland
113 Scrub Woodland Or Tree Savanna
114 Low Shrub - Bushland Savanna (Degraded from Miombo Woodland with Fire Burns)
115 Open Miombo Woodland With Improved Grassland
116 Sudanian Woodland/Savanna
117 Deforested Savanna with Crops
118 Savanna
119 Low Shrub Bushland with Cropland
120 Semi-Desert Grassland with Shrubland
121 Grassland/Shrubland
122 Grassland/Shrubland
123 Grassland/Shrubland
124 Grassland with Acacia Bushland
125 Grassland with Woodland
126 Grassland/Acacia Shrubland with Cropland
127 Grassland with Shrubland
128 Grassland, Herbaceous Wetland
129 Grassland/Shrubland
130 Grassland With Cropland
131 Shrubland/Grassland with Cropland
132 Grassland/Shrubland
133 Grassland with Cropland,Wetland
134 Mangroves/Swamps, Tropical Forest
135 Mangroves/Swamps, Tropical Forest
136 Mangroves
137 Deforested Coastal, Mangrove
138 Herbaceous Wetlands (Sud)
139 Herbaceous With Woody Wetlands (Okavanga Swamp)
140 Cropland with Shrubland
141 Cropland (Peanuts) with Baobab/Acacia
142 Cropland (Rice)
143 Cropland (Rice, Peanuts)
144 Cropland with Wetland
145 Cropland (Corn, Grains)
146 Pasture/Cropland
147 Nonirrigated Cropland
148 Pasture/Cropland
149 Cropland (Cereals, Pasture)
150 Cropland,Vineyards,Orchards
151 Cropland (Sugar Cane And Other Crops)
152 Shifting Agriculture, Tea, Tobacco
153 Nonirrigated Cropland (Cereals, Pasture)
154 Cropland
155 Cropland with Grassland Savanna
156 Cropland
157 Cropland with Grass
158 Cropland with Woody Plantations
159 Pasture/Cropland with Orchards
160 Cropland
161 Cropland with Sclerophyllous Forest
162 Agriculture Plantations
163 Irrigated Agriculture
164 Cropland with Tropical Forest
165 Cropland
166 Agriculture Plantations
167 Cropland (Tea/Coffee Plantations)
168 Cropland
169 Grassland/Cropland
170 Sudanian Woodland/Agriculture Mosaic
171 Shrubland/Irrigated Crops/Tree Crops
172 Cropland/Savanna/Bushland Mosaic
173 Degraded Tropical Forest/Cropland
174 Grassland/Cropland (Wheat,Small Grains)
175 Tropical Forest/Cropland Mosaic
176 Cropland/Plantations/Savanna Mosaic
177 Cropland/Woodland Savanna
178 Cropland (Plantations)/Woodland
179 Cropland/Savanna Mosaic
180 Secondary Tropical Forest/Cropland
181 Secondary Tropical Forest/Cropland
182 Cropland/Shrubland
183 Cropland/Miombo Woodland
184 Savanna/Cultivated Crops
185 Cropland/Savanna Mosaic
186 Woodland/Cropland
187 Secondary Forest/Cropland
188 Cropland/Fruit/Vineyards/Secondary Forest
189 Fragmented Dry Forest, Fallow, Cultivation
190 Cropland/Tropical Forest
191 Barren Or Sparsely Vegetated
192 Sahara/Sahel Sparsely Vegetated
193 Barren Or Sparsely Vegetated
194 Sahara/N. Sahel Sparsely Vegetated
195 Sparse Sahel Shrubs/Sahara Hammadas
196 Inland Water
197 Ocean

4.2 Global Ecosystems Legend
Value Description
1 Urban
2 Low Sparse Grassland
3 Coniferous Forest
4 Deciduous Conifer Forest
5 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
6 Evergreen Broadleaf Forests
7 Tall Grasses and Shrubs
8 Bare Desert
9 Upland Tundra
10 Irrigated Grassland
11 Semi Desert
12 Glacier Ice
13 Wooded Wet Swamp
14 Inland Water
15 Sea Water
16 Shrub Evergreen
17 Shrub Deciduous
18 Mixed Forest and Field
19 Evergreen Forest and Fields
20 Cool Rain Forest
21 Conifer Boreal Forest
22 Cool Conifer Forest
23 Cool Mixed Forest
24 Mixed Forest
25 Cool Broadleaf Forest
26 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
27 Conifer Forest
28 Montane Tropical Forests
29 Seasonal Tropical Forest
30 Cool Crops and Towns
31 Crops and Town
32 Dry Tropical Woods
33 Tropical Rainforest
34 Tropical Degraded Forest
35 Corn and Beans Cropland
36 Rice Paddy and Field
37 Hot Irrigated Cropland
38 Cool Irrigated Cropland
39 Cold Irrigated Cropland
40 Cool Grasses and Shrubs
41 Hot and Mild Grasses and Shrubs
42 Cold Grassland
43 Savanna (Woods)
44 Mire, Bog, Fen
45 Marsh Wetland
46 Mediterranean Scrub
47 Dry Woody Scrub
48 Dry Evergreen Woods
49 Volcanic Rock
50 Sand Desert
51 Semi Desert Shrubs
52 Semi Desert Sage
53 Barren Tundra
54 Cool Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forests
55 Cool Fields and Woods
56 Forest and Field
57 Cool Forest and Field
58 Fields and Woody Savanna
59 Succulent and Thorn Scrub
60 Small Leaf Mixed Woods
61 Deciduous and Mixed Boreal Forest
62 Narrow Conifers
63 Wooded Tundra
64 Heath Scrub
65 Coastal Wetland, NW
66 Coastal Wetland, NE
67 Coastal Wetland, SE
68 Coastal Wetland, SW
69 Polar and Alpine Desert
70 Glacier Rock
71 Salt Playas
72 Mangrove
73 Water and Island Fringe
74 Land, Water, and Shore
75 Land and Water, Rivers
76 Crop and Water Mixtures
77 Southern Hemisphere Conifers
78 Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forest
79 Wet Sclerophylic Forest
80 Coastline Fringe
81 Beaches and Dunes
82 Sparse Dunes and Ridges
83 Bare Coastal Dunes
84 Residual Dunes and Beaches
85 Compound Coastlines
86 Rocky Cliffs and Slopes
87 Sandy Grassland and Shrubs
88 Bamboo
89 Moist Eucalyptus
90 Rain Green Tropical Forest
91 Woody Savanna
92 Broadleaf Crops
93 Grass Crops
94 Crops, Grass, Shrubs
95 Evergreen Tree Crop
96 Deciduous Tree Crop

4.3 IGBP Land Cover Legend
Value Description
1 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
2 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
3 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
4 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
5 Mixed Forest
6 Closed Shrublands
7 Open Shrublands
8 Woody Savannas
9 Savannas
10 Grasslands
11 Permanent Wetlands
12 Croplands
13 Urban and Built-Up
14 Cropland/Natural Vegetation Mosaic
15 Snow and Ice
16 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
17 Water Bodies

4.4 USGS Land Use/Land Cover System Legend (Modified Level 2)
Value Code Description
1 100 Urban and Built-Up Land
2 211 Dryland Cropland and Pasture
3 212 Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
4 213 Mixed Dryland/Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
5 280 Cropland/Grassland Mosaic
6 290 Cropland/Woodland Mosaic
7 311 Grassland
8 321 Shrubland
9 330 Mixed Shrubland/Grassland
10 332 Savanna
11 411 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
12 412 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
13 421 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
14 422 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
15 430 Mixed Forest
16 500 Water Bodies
17 620 Herbaceous Wetland
18 610 Wooded Wetland
19 770 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
20 820 Herbaceous Tundra
21 810 Wooded Tundra
22 850 Mixed Tundra
23 830 Bare Ground Tundra
24 900 Snow or Ice

4.5 Simple Biosphere Model Legend
Value Description
1 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees
2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees
3 Deciduous and Evergreen Trees
4 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees
5 Deciduous Needleleaf Trees
6 Ground Cover with Trees and Shrubs
7 Groundcover Only
8 Broadleaf Shrubs with Perennial Ground Cover
9 Broadleaf Shrubs with Bare Soil
10 Groundcover with Dwarf Trees and Shrubs
11 Bare Soil
12 Agriculture or C3 Grassland
17 Persistent Wetland
18 Dry Coastal Complexes
19 Water
20 Ice Cap and Glacier

4.6 Simple Biosphere 2 Model Legend
Value Description
1 Broadleaf Evergreen Trees
2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees
3 Broadleaf and Needleleaf Trees
4 Needleleaf Evergreen Trees
5 Needleleaf Deciduous Trees
6 Short Vegetation/C4 Grassland
7 Shrubs with Bare Soil
8 Dwarf Trees and Shrubs
9 Agriculture or C3 Grassland
10 Water, Wetlands
11 Ice/Snow

4.7 Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme Legend
Value Description
1 Crops, Mixed Farming
2 Short Grass
3 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees
4 Deciduous Needleleaf Tree
5 Deciduous Broadleaf Trees
6 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees
7 Tall Grass
8 Desert
9 Tundra
10 Irrigated Crops
11 Semidesert
12 Ice Caps and Glaciers
13 Bogs and Marshes
14 Inland Water
15 Ocean
16 Evergreen Shrubs
17 Deciduous Shrubs
18 Mixed Forest
19 Forest/Field Mosaic
20 Water and Land Mixtures

4.8 Running Vegetation Lifeforms Legend
Value Description
1 Evergreen Needleleaf Vegetation
2 Evergreen Broadleaf Vegetation
3 Deciduous Needleleaf Vegetation
4 Deciduous Broadleaf Vegetation
5 Annual Broadleaf Vegetation
6 Annual Grass Vegetation
7 Non-vegetated Land
8 Water Bodies

5.0 Information on Version 2.0

The first version of the global land cover database was completed and released to the public in November, 1997.  We applied the feedback we received from the users of this database (Brown and others, 1999) and broad lessons learned from the validation exercise of the IGBP DISCover land cover data (Scepan, 1999; Muchoney and others, 1999) to the development of this revised version of the database.  Version 2.0 of the Africa land cover database contains updated land cover classes and revised labels.  Users can identify the revised images and documentation by observing  "2.0" or "2_0" in file names (for example, afigbp2_0g.img).  Links to the previous version (1.2) of the land cover database are found on glcc_version1.php. Please send any questions to our Land Cover Applications Center ( lcac@usgs.gov ).

We have provided the specific changes to the Africa land cover database in the following ascii text file, aflcdbtab2_0.txt .  The file contains 42 fields (columns) and the data are of variable width with tabs as field delimiters.  The first record (row) of the file corresponds to the field titles.  The following records in the file are indexed by the second field to the Africa Seasonal Land Cover Regions (Version 2.0).  The field entitled "Update" contains information specific to the action taken in order to revise the particular Seasonal Land Cover Region (for example, the class was split, merged with another region, or relabeled).

6.0 References

Anderson, J.R., Hardy, E.E., Roach J.T., and Witmer R.E., 1976, A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 28 p.

Belward, A.S., ed., 1996, The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set (DISCover)-proposal and implementation plans: IGBP-DIS Working Paper No. 13, Toulouse, France, 61 p.

Brown, J.F., Loveland, T.R., Ohlen, D.O., Zhu, Z., 1999. The Global Land-Cover Characteristics Database: The Users' Perspective. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1,069-1,074.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., Kennedy, P.J., and Wilson, M.F., 1986, Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model: NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN275+STR, Boulder, CO. 69 p.

Loveland, T.R., Zhu, Z., Ohlen, D.O., Brown, J.F., Reed, B.C., and Yang, L., 1999. An Analysis of the IGBP Global Land-Cover Characterization Process. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1021-1032.

Muchoney, D., Strahler, A., Hodges, J., and LoCastro, J., 1999. The IGBP DISCover Confidence Sites and the System for Terrestrial Ecosystem Parameterization: Tools for Validating Global Land-Cover Data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1061-1067.

Olson, J.S., 1994a, Global ecosystem framework-definitions: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 37 p.

_____ 1994b, Global ecosystem framework-translation strategy: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 39 p.

Running, S.W., Loveland, T.R., and Pierce, L.L., 1994. A Vegetation Classification Logic Based on Remote Sensing for Use in Global Biogeochemical Models, Ambio , v. 23, n. 1, p. 77-81.

Scepan, J., 1999. Thematic Validation of High-Resolution Global Land-Cover Data Sets, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 65, no. 9, p. 1051-1060.

Sellers, P.J., Mintz, Y., Sud, Y.C., and Dalcher A., 1986, A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models: Journal of Atmospheric Science , v. 43, p. 505-531.

Sellers, P.J., Randall, D.A., Collatz, G.J., Berry, J.A., Field, C.B., Dazlich, D.A., Zhang, C., Collelo, G.D., and Bounoua, L., 1996, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs - Part I-model formulation: Journal of Climate , v. 9, p. 676-705.

Steinwand, D.R., 1994, Mapping raster imagery to the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection: International Journal of Remote Sensing , v. 15, no. 17, p. 3,463-3,472.

Steinwand, D.R., Hutchinson, J.A., and Snyder, J.P. ,1995, Map projections for global and continental data sets and an analysis of pixel distortion caused by reprojection: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , v. 61, p. 1,487-1,497.
 

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