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USGS - science for a changing world

Global Land Cover Characterization

Africa Land Cover Characteristics Data Base Version 1.2

PLEASE NOTE: This is the Version 1.2 release of the Africa land cover characteristics data base. It has not yet been validated and is subject to review. Following validation, the data base will be modified based on the lessons learned. Comments from users of this data set are encouraged and will be considered for incorporation in later versions. Please email comments to:

lcac@edcmail.cr.usgs.gov


Table of Contents

1.0 Data Description

The Africa land cover data base is one portion of a global land cover characteristics data base that is being developed on a continent-by-continent basis. All continents in the global data base share the same map projections (Interrupted Goode Homolosine and Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area), have 1-km nominal spatial resolution, and are based on 1-km AVHRR data spanning April 1992 through March 1993. Each continental data base has unique elements that are based on the salient geographic aspects of the specific continent. In addition, a core set of derived thematic maps produced through the aggregation of seasonal land cover regions are included in each continental data base. These are:

The legends for each of these derived data sets can be found in Section 4.2 - 4.7.

For a description of the methodology for the global data base, see the global readme file found under the LP DAAC home page (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/glcc.php).

The Africa land cover characteristics data are in a flat, headerless raster format. The pixel values correspond to class numbers defined in the appropriate land cover classification scheme legend. Data are distributed as compressed and uncompressed single-band images. The files can be obtained either by anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp) or downloaded from the LP Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) World Wide Web site: (http://LPDAAC.usgs.gov/glcc/af_int.php). The instructions for accessing these files are contained in the following two sections.

1.1 Anonymous FTP for PC or UNIX Users

  1. Contact the FTP server. At your command prompt, use the command: ftp edcftp.cr.usgs.gov
  2. Login as an anonymous user and use your email address as the password.
  3. Change to the directory pub/data/glcc
  4. Change to the Africa subdirectory, af
  5. Change to the directory for the projection of interest (i.e., goode for Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or lambert for Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection).
  6. Locate the file of interest (a complete file listing is located in section 3.0 of this readme). The image files were compressed using the GNU 'gzip' software and can be identified by the ".gz" file extension. These files must be uncompressed before use with the 'gunzip' utility, a part of the 'gzip' software. Directions for acquiring the gzip software from GNU can be found on the WWW on the GNU home page (http://www.gnu.org/). If you do not have access to gzip, the ftp server can uncompress the files as they are retrieved.
  7. To FTP compressed files:
  8. To FTP uncompressed files:

1.2 Downloading from the World Wide Web Site

From the Africa Land Cover page, select either data in Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection or data in Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection. The selection will link to a page that contains links to all documentation files and the image files (both compressed and uncompressed). NOTE: World Wide Web browsers can vary in how the files will be downloaded. On PCs, some browsers will allow a user to interactively select the location where the file will be saved and to edit the file name. However, on certain browsers files may be automatically downloaded to a default storage location on the local system.

  1. Select either button, compressed or uncompressed, for the file of interest.
  2. A pop-up screen may appear, showing information on the download procedure. At this point, choose the directory in which to save the file.
  3. For compressed files, the .gz extension must be added to the filename before downloading. However, if the browser will not accept adding an extension, continue with the download, and then rename the file with the .gz extension when the download is complete.
  4. For uncompressed files, leave the .gz extension off. If a pop-up screen shows the filename with a .gz extension either edit the filename, or proceed with the download and rename the file without the extension after the procedure is complete.

2.0 Geometric Characteristics

The Africa data base is available in two different map projections: the Interrupted Goode Homolosine and the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (see Steinwand, 1994, and Steinwand and others, 1995, for a complete description of these projections).

2.1 Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection for the Africa land cover characteristics data set are 8,676 lines (rows) and 8,350 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 72 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Interrupted Goode Homolosine

2.2 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Parameters

The data dimensions of the Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection for the Africa land cover characteristics data set are 9,276 lines (rows) and 8,350 samples (columns) resulting in a data set size of approximately 77 megabytes for 8-bit (byte) images. The following is a summary of the map projection parameters used for this projection:

Projection Type: Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

3.0 File Listing

FILE (OR DIRECTORY)	DATA		DESCRIPTION
			TYPE

/pub/data/glcc/af                                                                          Africa

/pub/data/glcc/af/goode                                                               Goode's Interrupted Homolosine Projection

afdoc1_2.txt                                          ascii                                  Africa readme text
afslcr1_2.leg                                          ascii                                  Africa Seasonal land cover regions legend
bats.leg                                                  ascii                                  BATS legend
igbp.leg                                                  ascii                                  IGBP legend
oge.leg                                                   ascii                                  Global Ecosystems legend
sib.leg                                                    ascii                                  SIB legend
sib2.leg                                                  ascii                                  SIB2 legend
usgs.leg                                                  ascii                                  USGS land use/land cover legend
afbats1_2g.img.gz                                  byte                                   BATS image
afdemg.img.gz                                        I*2                                    DEM image
afigbp1_2g.img.gz                                  byte                                   IGBP image
afoge1_2g.img.gz                                   byte                                   Global Ecosystems image
afsib1_2g.img.gz                                    byte                                   SIB image
afsib21_2g.img.gz                                  byte                                   SIB2 image
afslcr1_2g.img.gz                                   byte                                   Seasonal land cover regions image
afurbang.img.gz                                      byte                                   Digital Chart of the World urban image
afusgs1_2g.img.gz                                  byte                                  USGS land use/land cover image

/pub/data/glcc/af/goode/ndvimon                                                 Monthly NDVI Composite Images

afaprndg.img.gz                                      byte                                  April, 1992 NDVI image
afmayndg.img.gz                                      byte                                   May, 1992 NDVI image
afjunndg.img.gz                                        byte                                   June, 1992 NDVI image
afjulndg.img.gz                                         byte                                   July, 1992 NDVI image
afaugndg.img.gz                                       byte                                   August, 1992 NDVI image
afsepndg.img.gz                                       byte                                   September, 1992 NDVI image
afoctndg.img.gz                                        byte                                  October, 1992 NDVI image
afnovndg.img.gz                                       byte                                  November, 1992 NDVI image
afdecndg.img.gz                                       byte                                  December, 1992 NDVI image
afjanndg.img.gz                                        byte                                  January, 1993 NDVI image
affebndg.img.gz                                        byte                                  February, 1993 NDVI image
afmarndg.img.gz                                       byte                                  March, 1993 NDVI image

/pub/data/glcc/af/lambert                                                              Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection

afdoc1_2.txt                                            ascii                                  Africa readme text
afslcr1_2.leg                                            ascii                                  Africa seasonal land cover regions legend
bats.leg                                                    ascii                                  BATS legend
igbp.leg                                                    ascii                                  IGBP legend
oge.leg                                                     ascii                                  Global Ecosystems legend
sib.leg                                                      ascii                                  SIB legend
sib2.leg                                                    ascii                                  SIB2 legend
usgs.leg                                                    ascii                                  USGS land use/land cover legend
afbats1_2l.img.gz                                      byte                                  BATS image
afdeml.img.gz                                            I*2                                   DEM image
afigbp1_2l.img.gz                                      byte                                  IGBP image
afoge1_2l.img.gz                                       byte                                  Global Ecosystems image
afsib1_2l.img.gz                                        byte                                  SIB image
afsib21_2l.img.gz                                      byte                                  SIB2 image
afslcr1_2l.img.gz                                       byte                                  Seasonal land cover regions image
afurbanl.img.gz                                          byte                                  DCW urban image
afusgs1_2l.img.gz                                      byte                                  USGS land use/land cover image

/pub/data/glcc/af/lambert/ndvimon                                                 Monthly NDVI Composite Images

afaprndl.img.gz                                          byte                                  April, 1992 NDVI image
afmayndl.img.gz                                         byte                                  May, 1992 NDVI image
afjunndl.img.gz                                           byte                                  June, 1992 NDVI image
afjulndl.img.gz                                            byte                                  July, 1992 NDVI image
afaugndl.img.gz                                          byte                                  August, 1992 NDVI image
afsepndl.img.gz                                          byte                                  September, 1992 NDVI image
afoctndl.img.gz                                           byte                                  October, 1992 NDVI image
afnovndl.img.gz                                          byte                                   November, 1992 NDVI image
afdecndl.img.gz                                          byte                                   December, 1992 NDVI image
afjanndl.img.gz                                           byte                                   January, 1993 NDVI image
affebndl.img.gz                                           byte                                   February, 1993 NDVI image
afmarndl.img.gz                                          byte                                   March, 1993 NDVI image

4.0 Derived Data Sets

4.1 Africa Seasonal Land Cover Regions Legend

Africa, v 1.2

Value Description

1 CROPLAND WITH SHRUBLAND

2 CROPLAND (PEANUTS) WITH BAOBAB/ACACIA

3 CROPLAND (PEANUTS)

4 CROPLAND WITH WETLAND

5 NONIRRIGATED CROPLAND

6 CROPLAND (CORN, GRAINS)

7 NONIRRIGATED CROPLAND

8 CROPLAND, VINEYARDS, ORCHARDS

9 CROPLAND

10 CROPLAND (SUGAR CANE AND OTHER CROPS)

11 CROPLAND

12 CROPLAND WITH GRASS

13 NONIRRIGATED CROPLAND

14 CROPLAND WITH GRASSLAND SAVANNA

15 CROPLAND

16 CROPLAND

17 CROPLAND WITH SCLEROPHYLLOUS FOREST

18 CROPLAND

19 CROPLAND

20 CROPLAND

21 CROPLAND (RICE)

22 IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE

23 SUDANIAN WOODLAND/AGRICULTURE MOSAIC

24 SCLEROPHYLLOUS FOREST/CROPLAND

25 SHRUBLAND/IRRIGATED CROPS/TREE CROPS

26 DEGRADED TROPICAL FOREST/CROPLAND MOSAIC

27 TROPICAL FOREST/CROPLAND MOSAIC

28 CROPLAND/PLANTATIONS/SAVANNA MOSAIC

29 CROPLAND/WOODLAND SAVANNA

30 SECONDARY TROPICAL FOREST WITH CROPS

31 SCLEROPHYLLOUS FOREST/CROPLAND

32 SECONDARY TROPICAL FOREST/CROPLAND

33 SECONDARY TROPICAL FOREST WITH CROPS

34 CROPLAND/MIOMBO WOODLAND

35 CROPLAND/DEGRADED FOREST SAVANNA

36 CROPLAND/SHRUBLAND

37 CROPLAND/FRUIT/VINEYARDS/SECONDARY FOREST

38 CROPLAND WITH TROPICAL FOREST

39 SECONDARY TROPICAL FOREST/AGRICULTURE/PASTURE

40 CROPLAND/TROPICAL FOREST

41 TROPICAL FOREST/CROPLAND MOSAIC

42 SUBTROPICAL FOREST/CROPLAND

43 DESERT GRASSLAND WITH CROPS

44 CROPLAND/SAVANNA/BUSHLAND MOSAIC

45 SAVANNA/CROPLAND MOSAIC

46 GRASSLAND/CROPLAND (WHEAT, SMALL GRAINS)

47 CROPLAND/SAVANNA MOSAIC

48 SAVANNA/CULTIVATED CROPS

49 CROPLAND/SAVANNA MOSAIC

50 SAVANNA/CROPLAND

51 SEMI-DESERT GRASSLAND WITH SHRUBLAND

52 GRASSLAND WITH ACACIA BUSHLAND

53 GRASSLAND/ACACIA SHRUBLAND WITH CROPLAND

54 GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND

55 GRASSLAND WITH CROPLAND

56 GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND

57 GRASSLAND WITH CROPLAND, WETLAND

58 DESERT SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND

59 DESERT SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND

60 DESERT SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND

61 DESERT SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND

62 ACACIA SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND

63 GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND

64 GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND

65 GRASSLAND/SHRUBLAND

66 SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND

67 GRASSLAND/ACACIA SHRUBLAND

68 BUSH/SHRUBLAND

69 SAHEL SHRUBS WITH ANNUAL GRASSES

70 SPARSE SAHEL SHRUBS/SAHARA HAMMADAS

71 DESERT SHRUBLAND WITH SUCCULENTS

72 ACACIA BUSH/THORNLAND THICKET

73 DESERT/HAMMADAS/SHRUBLAND

74 SEMI-DESERT SHRUBLAND WITH GRASSLAND

75 SHRUBLAND WITH GRASSLAND

76 ACACIA BUSHLAND/THICKETS

77 SHRUBLAND WITH GRASSLAND

78 ACACIA BUSHLAND/THICKET

79 ACACIA BUSHLAND/THICKET

80 ACACIA BUSHLAND/THICKET

81 ACACIA SHRUBLAND/BUSHLAND

82 BUSH WOODLAND

83 ACACIA BUSHLAND/THICKET

84 ACACIA BUSHLAND THICKET

85 GRASSLAND/SUDANIAN WOODLAND

86 SUDANIAN WOODLAND/SAVANNA

87 SUDANIAN WOODLAND/SAVANNA

88 GRASSLAND WITH WOODLAND

89 SUDANIAN WOODLAND WITH CROPS

90 WOODLAND/HIGH VELD GRASSLAND

91 DECIDUOUS THICKET/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

92 ACACIA SHRUBLAND/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

93 DRY DECIDUOUS FOREST/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

94 DRY DECIDUOUS FOREST/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

95 WOODLAND/GRASSLAND

96 SUDANIAN WOODLAND WITH CROPS

97 SHRUB SAVANNA

98 WOODLAND/GRASS/SHRUB MOSAIC

99 OPEN MIOMBO WOODLAND/SAVANNA

100 MONTANE DRY SPARSE FOREST/GRASSLAND

101 DECIDUOUS FOREST/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

102 SUDANIAN WOODLAND WITH CROPS

103 SAVANNA

104 OPEN MIOMBO WOODLAND WITH CROPLAND

105 SAVANNA WITH AGRICULTURE

106 SAVANNA

107 DRY FOREST/GRASSLAND WITH CROPS

108 WOODLAND/ACACIA/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

109 SUDANIAN WOODLAND

110 OPEN MIOMBO WOODLAND/SAVANNA

111 WOODLAND/GRASSLAND SAVANNA

112 DRY FOREST/GRASSLAND

113 DRY FOREST/GRASSLAND SAVANNA

114 OPEN MIOMBO WOODLAND/SAVANNA WITH CROPS

115 OPEN MIOMBO WOODLAND

116 SUDANIAN WOODLAND/SAVANNA

117 DEGRADED FOREST/GRASSLAND SAVANNA

118 OPEN MIOMBO WOODLAND, SAVANNA

119 OPEN MIOMBO WOODLAND/BUSHLAND

120 OPEN MIOMBO WOODLAND WITH CROPS

121 OPEN MIOMBO WOODLAND

122 SEMI-DECIDUOUS FOREST

123 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

124 SCLEROPHYLLOUS SUBTROPICAL FOREST

125 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

126 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

127 SCLEROPHYLL FOREST WITH CROPS

128 SECONDARY TROPICAL FOREST

129 TROPICAL RAINFOREST WITH SAVANNA

130 TROPICAL RAINFOREST WITH SAVANNA

131 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

132 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

133 TROPICAL RAINFOREST WITH SAVANNA

134 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

135 MONTANE EVERGREEN FOREST

136 TROPICAL FOREST/MIOMBO WOODLAND

137 MONTANE EVERGREEN FORESTS

138 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

139 TROPICAL FOREST

140 SECONDARY TROPICAL FOREST

141 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

142 FRAGMENTED TROPICAL FOREST

143 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

144 HUMID TROPICAL FOREST

145 TROPICAL FOREST WITH SEMI-DECIDUOUS ELEMENT

146 TROPICAL FOREST/MIOMBO WOODLAND

147 TROPICAL RAINFOREST

148 MONTANE EVERGREEN FOREST

149 DENSE TROPICAL RAINFOREST

150 DENSE TROPICAL RAINFOREST

151 MONTANE EVERGREEN FOREST

152 TROPICAL FOREST, MIOMBO WOODLAND

153 DENSE TROPICAL RAINFOREST

154 TROPICAL FOREST WITH SEMI-DECIDUOUS ELEMENT

155 SCLEROPHYLLOUS FOREST/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

156 BUSHLAND/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

157 TROPICAL FOREST/GRASSLAND

158 WOODY SAVANNA

159 DEGRADED FOREST WITH GRASSLAND

160 TROPICAL FOREST/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

161 DEGRADED TROPICAL FOREST

162 DEGRADED TROPICAL SAVANNA WITH CROPLAND

163 OPEN MIOMBO WOODLAND WITH GRASSLAND

164 TREE SAVANNA

165 TREE SAVANNA

166 MIOMBO WOODLAND

167 DEGRADED FOREST/SAVANNA WITH CROPLAND

168 DEFORESTED SAVANNA WITH CROPS

169 DEGRADED TROPICAL RAINFOREST

170 TROPICAL FOREST/GRASSLAND WITH CROPLAND

171 TROPICAL FOREST/GRASSLAND WITH CROPLAND

172 DEGRADED TROPICAL FOREST

173 MIOMBO WOODLAND

174 HIGH DENSITY SUDANIAN WOODLAND

175 DEFORESTED SAVANNA/MIOMBO WOODLAND

176 DENSE SUDANIAN WOODLAND WITH GRASSLAND

177 TROPICAL RAINFOREST/GRASSLAND MOSAIC

178 MIOMBO WOODLAND/TROPICAL FOREST

179 DEGRADED TROPICAL FOREST

180 MIOMBO WOODLAND WITH CROPLAND

181 TROPICAL FOREST, MIOMBO WOODLAND

182 MIOMBO WOODLAND WITH CROPLAND

183 DEGRADED FOREST SAVANNA WITH CROPLAND

184 DEGRADED LOWLAND FOREST/SAVANNA

185 DEGRADED FOREST WITH CROPS

186 DEGRADED TROPICAL FOREST/SUDANIAN WOODLAND

187 HERBACEOUS WETLANDS (SUD)

188 HERBACEOUS WITH WOODY WETLANDS (OKAVANGA SWAMP)

189 MANGROVES/SWAMPS, TROPICAL FOREST

190 MANGROVES/SWAMPS, TROPICAL FOREST

191 MANGROVES

192 MANGROVES/TROPICAL FOREST

193 BARREN OR SPARSELY VEGETATED

194 SAHARA/SAHEL SPARSELY VEGETATED

195 BARREN OR SPARSELY VEGETATED

196 SAHARA/N. SAHEL SPARSELY VEGETATED

197 WATER

4.2 Global Ecosystems Legend

Value Description

1 Urban

2 Low Sparse Grassland

3 Coniferous Forest

4 Deciduous Conifer Forest

5 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

6 Evergreen Broadleaf Forests

7 Tall Grasses and Shrubs

8 Bare Desert

9 Upland Tundra

10 Irrigated Grassland

11 Semi Desert

12 Glacier Ice

13 Wooded Wet Swamp

14 Inland Water (see Note 1)

15 Sea Water (see Note 1)

16 Shrub Evergreen

17 Shrub Deciduous

18 Mixed Forest and Field

19 Evergreen Forest and Fields

20 Cool Rain Forest

21 Conifer Boreal Forest

22 Cool Conifer Forest

23 Cool Mixed Forest

24 Mixed Forest

25 Cool Broadleaf Forest

26 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

27 Conifer Forest

28 Montane Tropical Forests

29 Seasonal Tropical Forest

30 Cool Crops and Towns

31 Crops and Town

32 Dry Tropical Woods

33 Tropical Rainforest

34 Tropical Degraded Forest

35 Corn and Beans Cropland

36 Rice Paddy and Field

37 Hot Irrigated Cropland

38 Cool Irrigated Cropland

39 Cold Irrigated Cropland

40 Cool Grasses and Shrubs

41 Hot and Mild Grasses and Shrubs

42 Cold Grassland

43 Savanna (Woods)

44 Mire, Bog, Fen

45 Marsh Wetland

46 Mediterranean Scrub

47 Dry Woody Scrub

48 Dry Evergreen Woods

49 Volcanic Rock

50 Sand Desert

51 Semi Desert Shrubs

52 Semi Desert Sage

53 Barren Tundra

54 Cool Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forests

55 Cool Fields and Woods

56 Forest and Field

57 Cool Forest and Field

58 Fields and Woody Savanna

59 Succulent and Thorn Scrub

60 Small Leaf Mixed Woods

61 Deciduous and Mixed Boreal Forest

62 Narrow Conifers

63 Wooded Tundra

64 Heath Scrub

65 Coastal Wetland, NW

66 Coastal Wetland, NE

67 Coastal Wetland, SE

68 Coastal Wetland, SW

69 Polar and Alpine Desert

70 Glacier Rock

71 Salt Playas

72 Mangrove

73 Water and Island Fringe

74 Land, Water, and Shore (see Note 1)

75 Land and Water, Rivers (see Note 1)

76 Crop and Water Mixtures

77 Southern Hemisphere Conifers

78 Southern Hemisphere Mixed Forest

79 Wet Sclerophylic Forest

80 Coastline Fringe

81 Beaches and Dunes

82 Sparse Dunes and Ridges

83 Bare Coastal Dunes

84 Residual Dunes and Beaches

85 Compound Coastlines

86 Rocky Cliffs and Slopes

87 Sandy Grassland and Shrubs

88 Bamboo

89 Moist Eucalyptus

90 Rain Green Tropical Forest

91 Woody Savanna

92 Broadleaf Crops

93 Grass Crops

94 Crops, Grass, Shrubs

Note 1: In Version 1.2, all water is mapped to one digital value (14).

4.3 IGBP Land Cover Legend

Value Description

1 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest

2 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest

3 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest

4 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

5 Mixed Forest

6 Closed Shrublands

7 Open Shrublands

8 Woody Savannas

9 Savannas

10 Grasslands

11 Permanent Wetlands

12 Croplands

13 Urban and Built-Up

14 Cropland/Natural Vegetation Mosaic

15 Snow and Ice

16 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated

17 Water Bodies

4.4 USGS Land Use/Land Cover System Legend (Modified Level 2)

Value Code Description
1 100 Urban and Built-Up Land
2 211 Dryland Cropland and Pasture
3 212 Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
4 213 Mixed Dryland/Irrigated Cropland and Pasture
5 280 Cropland/Grassland Mosaic
6 290 Cropland/Woodland Mosaic
7 311 Grassland
8 321 Shrubland
9 330 Mixed Shrubland/Grassland
10 332 Savanna
11 411 Deciduous Broadleaf Forest
12 412 Deciduous Needleleaf Forest
13 421 Evergreen Broadleaf Forest
14 422 Evergreen Needleleaf Forest
15 430 Mixed Forest
16 500 Water Bodies
17 620 Herbaceous Wetland
18 610 Wooded Wetland
19 770 Barren or Sparsely Vegetated
20 820 Herbaceous Tundra
21 810 Wooded Tundra
22 850 Mixed Tundra
23 830 Bare Ground Tundra
24 900 Snow or Ice

4.5 Simple Biosphere Model Legend

Value Description

1 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees

2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees

3 Deciduous and Evergreen Trees

4 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees

5 Deciduous Needleleaf Trees

6 Ground Cover with Trees and Shrubs

7 Groundcover Only

8 Broadleaf Shrubs with Perennial Ground Cover

9 Broadleaf Shrubs with Bare Soil

10 Groundcover with Dwarf Trees and Shrubs

11 Bare Soil

12 Agriculture or C3 Grassland

17 Persistent Wetland

18 Dry Coastal Complexes

19 Water

20 Ice Cap and Glacier

4.6 Simple Biosphere 2 Model Legend

Value Description

1 Broadleaf Evergreen Trees

2 Broadleaf Deciduous Trees

3 Broadleaf and Needleleaf Trees

4 Needleleaf Evergreen Trees

5 Needleleaf Deciduous Trees

6 Short Vegetation/C4 Grassland

7 Shrubs with Bare Soil

8 Dwarf Trees and Shrubs

9 Agriculture or C3 Grassland

10 Water, Wetlands, Ice/Snow

4.7 Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme Legend

Value Description

1 Crops, Mixed Farming

2 Short Grass

3 Evergreen Needleleaf Trees

4 Deciduous Needleleaf Tree

5 Deciduous Broadleaf Trees

6 Evergreen Broadleaf Trees

7 Tall Grass

8 Desert

9 Tundra

10 Irrigated Crops

11 Semidesert

12 Ice Caps and Glaciers

13 Bogs and Marshes

14 Inland Water

15 Ocean

16 Evergreen Shrubs

17 Deciduous Shrubs

18 Mixed Forest

19 Interrupted Forest

20 Water and Land Mixtures

5.0 References

Anderson, J.R., Hardy, E.E., Roach J.T., and Witmer R.E., 1976, A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 964, 28 p.

Belward, A.S., ed., 1996, The IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set (DISCover)-proposal and implementation plans: IGBP-DIS Working Paper No. 13, Toulouse, France, 61 p.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., Kennedy, P.J., and Wilson, M.F., 1986, Biosphere-atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) for the NCAR community climate model: NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN275+STR, Boulder, CO. 69 p.

Olson, J.S., 1994a, Global ecosystem framework-definitions: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 37 p.

_____ 1994b, Global ecosystem framework-translation strategy: USGS EROS Data Center Internal Report, Sioux Falls, SD, 39 p.

Sellers, P.J., Mintz, Y., Sud, Y.C., and Dalcher A., 1986, A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models: Journal of Atmospheric Science, v. 43, p. 505-531.

Sellers, P.J., Randall, D.A., Collatz, G.J., Berry, J.A., Field, C.B., Dazlich, D.A., Zhang, C., Collelo, G.D., and Bounoua, L., 1996, A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs - Part I-model formulation: Journal of Climate, v. 9, p. 676-705.

Steinwand, D.R., 1994, Mapping raster imagery to the Interrupted Goode Homolosine projection: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 15, no. 17, p. 3,463-3,472.

Steinwand, D.R., Hutchinson, J.A., and Snyder, J.P., 1995, Map projections for global and continental data sets and an analysis of pixel distortion caused by reprojection: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 61, p. 1,487-1,497.

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